Statistical information Luxembourg 2023Luxembourg

Map of Luxembourg | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Luxembourg in the World
Luxembourg in the World

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Luxembourg - Introduction 2023
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Background: Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.


Luxembourg - Geography 2023
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Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 2,586 km²
Land: 2,586 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware

Land boundaries
Total: 327 km
Border countries: (3) Belgium 130 km; France 69 km; Germany 128 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation
Highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
Mean elevation: 325 m

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 50.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 24% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.6% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 26.1% (2018 est.)
Forest: 33.5% (2018 est.)
Other: 15.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: Rhine-Maas (198,735 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)
Agricultural: 400,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 3.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional flooding

Geography
Note: landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world


Luxembourg - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: most people live in the south, on or near the border with France: 660,924 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.58% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.5% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Luxembourger(s)
Adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups: Luxembourger 52.9%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.7%, Belgian 3%, German 2%, Spanish 1.3%, Romania 1%, other 14% (2022 est.)
Note: data represent population by nationality

Languages: Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)

Religions: Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.6%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.4%, unaffiliated 26.7% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 16.73% (male 57,006/female 53,593)
15-64 years: 67.38% (male 228,427/female 216,912)
65 years and over: 15.88% (2023 est.) (male 47,951/female 57,035)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 44.2
Youth dependency ratio: 23
Elderly dependency ratio: 21.3
Potential support ratio: 4.7 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 39.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 39.3 years
Female: 40.3 years

Population growth rate: 1.58% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 11.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: most people live in the south, on or near the border with France

Urbanization
Urban population: 92.1% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 8.89 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 8.99 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 0.61 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 31 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 83.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 80.7 years
Female: 85.8 years

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 98.6% of population
Improved total: 99.9% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 1.4% of population
Unimproved total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 5.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density: 4.3 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 22.6% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 4.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 4.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 21.1% (2020 est.)
Male: 22.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 19.8% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 15.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 14.1%


Luxembourg - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Conventional short form: Luxembourg
Local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
Local short form: Luxembourg
Etymology: the name derives from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the surrounding city and then to the country itself

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital
Name: Luxembourg
Geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: the name derives from the Celtic lucilem (little) and the German burg (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"; the name is actually ironic, since for centuries the Fortress of Luxembourg was one of Europe's most formidable fortifications; the name passed to the city that grew around the fortress

Administrative divisions: 12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz

Dependent areas

Independence: 1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day (birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

Constitution
History: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868
Amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than a quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system: civil law system

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
Head of government: Prime Minister Luc FRIEDEN (since 17 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 17 November 2023)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies
Elections: last held on 8 October 2023 (next to be held by 31 October 2,028)
Election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.2%, LSAP 18.9%, DP 18.7%, ADR 9.3%, Green Party 8.6%, Pirate Party 6.7%, The Left 3.9%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 14, LSAP 11, ADR 5, Green Party 4, Pirate Party 3, The Left 2; composition (as of October 2023) - men 42, women 18, percent of women 30%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
Judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life
Subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Fred KEUP]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Claude WISELER]
Democratic Party or DP [Lex DELLES]
Green Party [Djuna BERNARD, Meris SEHOVIC]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Dan BIANCALANA, Francine CLOSENER]
Pirate Party [Starsky FLOR, Rebecca LAU]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]


International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nicole BINTNER-BAKSHIAN (since 15 August 2021)
In the us chancery: 2,200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-4,171
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 328-8,270
In the us email address and website:
washington.amb@mae.etat.lu

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M. BARRETT (since 10 February 2022)
From the us embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2,535 Luxembourg City
From the us mailing address: 5,380 Luxembourg Place, Washington DC 20,521-5,380
From the us telephone: [352] 46-01-23-00
From the us FAX: [352] 46-14-01
From the us email address and website:
Luxembourgconsular@state.gov
[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Luxembourg: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)

National symbols: red, rampant lion; national colors: red, white, light blue

National anthem
Name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
Lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
Note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Luxembourg - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, EU-member European economy; global financial and information storage leader; high government spending; one of highest GDP per capita countries; unique audit accountancy based on company sizing; aging labor force; hit by COVID-19

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$74.045 billion (2021 est.)
$70.45 billion (2020 est.)
$71.016 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
5.1% (2021 est.)
-0.8% (2020 est.)
2.32% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)
Industry: 12.8% (2017 est.)
Services: 86.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 2.87% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 333,900 (2021 est.)
Note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.23% (2021 est.)
6.77% (2020 est.)
5.59% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 15.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 16.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 14.1%

Population below poverty line: 17.5% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 34.2 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 3.5%
Highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $31.74 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $30.014 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: 1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
23% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Taxes and other revenues: 25.13% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$4.141 billion (2021 est.)
$3.496 billion (2020 est.)
$2.459 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
2.53% (2021 est.)
0.82% (2020 est.)
1.74% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$4.141 billion (2021 est.)
$3.496 billion (2020 est.)
$2.459 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$177.831 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$145.417 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$139.559 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 23%, France 13%, Belgium 12%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5% (2019)
Commodities: iron products, cars and vehicle parts, tires, gas turbines, adhesive plastics (2021)

Imports:
$148.15 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$121.328 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$116.803 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Belgium 27%, Germany 24%, France 11%, Netherlands 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, scrap iron, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.921 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.119 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.055 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$4,266,792,000,000 (2019 est.)
$4,581,617,000,000 (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)



Luxembourg - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 6.188 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 1.079 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 6.543 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 1.899 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 13.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 14.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 27.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 7.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 36.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 63,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 59,020 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 776.022 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 772.624 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 11.308 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 149,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 9.564 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 1.594 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 310.068 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Luxembourg - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 261,054 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 880,000 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available

Internet country code: .lu

Internet users
Total: 633,600 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 99% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 235,155 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2020 est.)


Luxembourg - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.7% of GDP (2023 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2021)
0.6% of GDP (2020)
0.6% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces: Luxembourg Army (l'Armée Luxembourgeoise) (2023)
Note: the Grand Ducal Police maintain internal security and report to the Ministry of Internal Security

Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (abolished 1969) (2023)
Note 1: in 2023, women made up about 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Terrorist groups


Luxembourg - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 66
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,099,102 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,323,040,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: LX

Airports: 2 (2021)
With paved runways: 1
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 1
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 1
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 1
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)

Railways
Total: 271 km (2020) 262 km electrified

Roadways
Total: 2,875 km (2019)
Paved: (2011)

Waterways: 37 km (2010) (on Moselle River)

Merchant marine
Total: 149 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 4, container ship 1, general cargo 27, oil tanker 3, other 114

Ports and terminals
River ports: Mertert (Moselle)


Luxembourg - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 6,065 (Ukraine) (as of 11 August 2023)
Stateless persons: 174 (2022)

Illicit drugs


Undercover Tourist


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