Statistical information Madagascar 2023Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Madagascar in the World
Madagascar in the World

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Madagascar - Introduction 2023
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Madagascar was one of the last major habitable landmasses on earth settled by humans. While there is some evidence of human presence on the island in the millennia B.C., large-scale settlement began between A.D. 350 and 550 with settlers from present-day Indonesia. The island attracted Arab and Persian traders as early as the 7th century, and migrants from Africa arrived around A.D. 1000. Madagascar was a pirate stronghold during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and served as a slave trading center into the 19th century. From the 16th to the late 19th century, a native Merina Kingdom dominated much of Madagascar. The island was conquered by the French in 1896 who made it a colony; independence was regained in 1960.

During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA won a second term in 2006 but, following protests in 2009, handed over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Following a lengthy mediation process led by the Southern African Development Community, Madagascar held UN-supported presidential and parliamentary elections in 2013. Former de facto finance minister Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA won a runoff election in December 2013 and was inaugurated in January 2014. In January 2019, RAJOELINA was declared the winner of a runoff election against RAVALOMANANA; both RATSIRAKA and RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA also ran in the first round of the election, which took place in November 2018.

Madagascar - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 587,041 km²
Land: 581,540 km²
Water: 5,501 km²
Comparative: almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 615 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 71.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 6% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 64.1% (2018 est.)
Forest: 21.5% (2018 est.)
Other: 7.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,860 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 400 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 160 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 13 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 337 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel; despite Madagascar’s close proximity to the African continent, ocean currents isolate the island resulting in high rates of endemic plant and animal species; approximately 90% of the flora and fauna on the island are found nowhere else

Madagascar - People 2023
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Distribution: most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline as shown in this [link]: 28,812,195 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 2.22% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 70.7% (2012 est.)

Noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
Adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Languages: Malagasy (official) 99.9%, French (official) 23.6%, English 8.2%, other 0.6% (2018 est.)
Note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

Religions: Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar/Malagasy Lutheran Church/Anglican Church 34%, Roman Catholic 32.3%, other Christian 8.1%, traditional/Animist 1.7%, Muslim 1.4%, other 0.6%, none 21.9% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile: Madagascar’s youthful population - nearly 60% are under the age of 25 as of 2020 - and moderately high total fertility rate of more than 3.6 children per woman ensures that the Malagasy population will continue its rapid growth trajectory for the foreseeable future. The population is predominantly rural and poor; chronic malnutrition is prevalent, and large families are the norm. Many young Malagasy girls are withdrawn from school, marry early (often pressured to do so by their parents), and soon begin having children. Early childbearing, coupled with Madagascar’s widespread poverty and lack of access to skilled health care providers during delivery, increases the risk of death and serious health problems for young mothers and their babies.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 37.47% (male 5,451,018/female 5,343,865)
15-64 years: 58.72% (male 8,481,873/female 8,437,644)
65 years and over: 3.81% (2023 est.) (male 506,495/female 591,300)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 74.5
Youth dependency ratio: 68.8
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
Potential support ratio: 17.4 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 21 years (2023 est.)
Male: 20.9 years
Female: 21.2 years

Population growth rate: 2.22% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 28.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 40.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 4.26% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 3.872 million ANTANANARIVO (capital) (2023)

Current issues: erosion and soil degredation results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; agricultural fires; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; wildlife preservation (endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island)
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 16.02 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 3.91 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 10.14 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 19.5 years (2021 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio: 392 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 41.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 34.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 67.1 years
Female: 69.9 years

Total fertility rate: 3.55 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 49.7% (2020)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 85% of population
Improved rural: 38% of population
Improved total: 56.1% of population
Unimproved urban: 15% of population
Unimproved rural: 62% of population
Unimproved total: 43.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 0.2 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
49.2% of population

rural: 22.1% of population

total: 32.6% of population

Unimproved urban:
50.8% of population

rural: 77.9% of population

total: 67.4% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Madagascar is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 5.3% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0.89 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.07 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 27.8% (2020 est.)
Male: 42.7% (2020 est.)
Female: 12.8% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 22.6% (2021)

Education expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 77.3%
Male: 78.8%
Female: 75.8% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 10 years
Male: 10 years
Female: 10 years (2018)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 4.8% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 5.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 4.4%

Madagascar - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
Conventional short form: Madagascar
Local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
Local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
Former: Malagasy Republic
Etymology: the name "Madageiscar" was first used by the 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco POLO, as a corrupted transliteration of Mogadishu, the Somali port with which POLO confused the island

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Name: Antananarivo
Geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the name, which means "City of the Thousand," was bestowed by 17th century King ADRIANJAKAKING to honor the soldiers assigned to guard the city

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

History: previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic in consultation with the cabinet or supported by a least two thirds of both the Senate and National Assembly membership; passage requires at least three-fourths approval of both the Senate and National Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles, including the form and powers of government, the sovereignty of the state, and the autonomy of Madagascar’s collectivities, cannot be amended

Legal system: civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Andry RAJOELINA (since 21 January 2019)
Head of government: Prime Minister Christian NTSAY (since 6 June 2018)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 November 2023 (next to be held in November 2,028); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president
Election results:

: Andry RAJOELINA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 59.0%, Siteny Thierry RANDRIANASOLONIAIKO 14.3%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 12.1%

: Andry RAJOELINA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 39.2%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 35.4%, other 25.4%; percent of vote in second round - Andry RAJOELINA 55.7%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 44.3%

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate or Antenimierandoholona (18 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of municipal, communal, regional, and provincial leaders and 6 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

Senate - last held on 11 December 2020 (next to be held in December 2,025)
National Assembly - last held on 27 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024)

Election results:
2020: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; elected seats by party - Irmar 10, Malagasy Miara Miainga 2; composition - men 16, women 2, percent of women 11.1%

2019: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - TGV 30.9%, TIM 9.7%, MATITA 1.1%, MTS 0.4%, GJMP 0.3%, MDM 0.2%, RPSD Vaovao 0.1%, Independents 50%, Other 7.3%; composition - men 123, women 28, percent of women 18.5%; note - total Parliament percent of women 17.8%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); High Court of Justice (consists of 11 members; addresses cases brought against the president of Madagascar and high officials for high treason, grave violations of the Constitution, or breach of duties incompatible with the exercise of the presidential mandate)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve 3-year, single renewable terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 7-year terms; High Court of Justice members include: first president of the Supreme Court; 2 presidents from the Court of Cassation; 2 presidents from the Court of Appeal; 2 deputies from the National Assembly; 2 senators from the Senate; 2 members from the High Council for the Defense of Democracy and the State of law
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Cassation; Courts of First Instance; military courts; traditional (dina) courts; Trade Court

Political parties and leaders:
Group of Young Malagasy Patriots (Groupe des Jeunes Malgaches Patriotes) or GJMP
I Love Madagascar (Tiako I Madagasikara) or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]
Malagasy Aware (Malagasy Tonga Saina) or MTS [Roland RATSIRAKA]
Malagasy Tia Tanindrazana or MATITA or ANGADY [Hyacinthe Befeno TODIMANANA]
Movement for Democracy in Madagascar (Mouvement pour la Démocratie à Madagascar) or MDM [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]
Rally for Democratic Socialism (Rassemblement pour Socialisme Démocratique - Nauveau) or RPSD Vaovao [Evariste MARSON]
Young Malagasies Determined (Tanora Malagasy Vonona) or TGV [Andry RAJOELINA]

Note: Only parties with seats in the National Assembly included

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Amielle Pelenne NIRINIAVISOA MARCEDA (since 31 October 2019)
In the us chancery: 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 265-5,525
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 265-3,034
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Claire PIERANGELO (since 2 May 2022)
From the us embassy: Lot 207A, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo - Madagascar
From the us mailing address: 2,040 Antananarivo Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,040
From the us telephone: [261] 33-44-320-00
From the us FAX: [261] 33-44-320-35
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side; by tradition, red stands for sovereignty, green for hope, white for purity

National symbols: traveller's palm, zebu; national colors: red, green, white

National anthem
Name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
Lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA
Note: adopted 1959

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 3 (1 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve (n); Ambohimanga Royal Hill (c); Atsinanana Rainforests (n)

Madagascar - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: low-income East African island economy; natural resource rich; extreme poverty; return of political stability has helped growth; sharp tax revenue drop due to COVID-19; leading vanilla producer; environmentally fragile

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$42.322 billion (2021 est.)
$40.537 billion (2020 est.)
$43.653 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.4% (2021 est.)
-7.14% (2020 est.)
4.41% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 67.1% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 15.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 8.8% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 31.5% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -33.7% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 24% (2017 est.)
Industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
Services: 56.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: meat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining

Industrial production growth rate: -21.56% (2020 est.)

Labor force: 14.813 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
2.59% (2021 est.)
2.47% (2020 est.)
1.86% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 4.8% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 5.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 4.4%

Population below poverty line: 70.7% (2012 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 42.6 (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.2%
Highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.51 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $2.09 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
36% of GDP (2017 est.)
38.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 9.52% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 4.34% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$732.252 million (2021 est.)
-$623.149 million (2020 est.)
-$302.357 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.81% (2021 est.)
4.2% (2020 est.)
5.61% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$732.252 million (2021 est.)
-$623.149 million (2020 est.)
-$302.357 million (2019 est.)

$3.341 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.589 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.082 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 19%, France 18%, United Arab Emirates 7%, China 6%, Japan 6%, Germany 5%, India 5% (2019)
Commodities: vanilla, nickel, clothing and apparel, titanium, gold, cloves (2021)

$4.768 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.718 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.685 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: China 24%, France 11%, United Arab Emirates 9%, India 7%, South Africa 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, rice, cars, packaged medicines, clothing and apparel (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.335 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.981 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.693 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$3.085 billion (2019 est.)
$4.107 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar - 3,829.978 (2021 est.)
3,787.754 (2020 est.)
3,618.322 (2019 est.)
3,334.752 (2018 est.)
3,116.11 (2017 est.)

Madagascar - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 20 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 35.1% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 72.6% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 10.9% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 1,720,140,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 587,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 59.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 38.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 21,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 18,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 4.218 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1.044 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 3.175 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 2.307 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Madagascar - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 25,761 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 16,279,633 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 56 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2019)

Internet country code: .mg

Internet users
Total: 5.8 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 20% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 32,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.1 (2020 est.)

Madagascar - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: Madagascar People's Armed Forces (PAF): Army, Navy, Air Force; National Gendarmerie (2023)
Note: the National Gendarmerie is separate from the PAF under the Ministry of Defense and is responsible for maintaining law and order in rural areas at the village level, protecting government facilities, and operating a maritime police contingent; the National Police under the Ministry of Security is responsible for maintaining law and order in urban areas

Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for men and women; service obligation 18 months; no conscription; women are permitted to serve in all branches (2022)

Terrorist groups

Madagascar - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 541,290 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 16.25 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 5R

Airports: 83 (2021)
With paved runways: 26
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 57
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 26
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 57
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control



Total: 836 km (2018)
Narrow gauge: 836 km (2018) 1.000-m gauge

Total: 31,640 km (2018)

Waterways: 600 km (2011) (432 km navigable)

Merchant marine
Total: 28 (2022)
By type: general cargo 15, oil tanker 2, other 11

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)

Madagascar - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalMadagascar-France: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France; talks with France over the claims have occurred in 1990, 2016, and 2019); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claim of France

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin


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