Statistical information Maldives 2023Maldives

Map of Maldives | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Maldives in the World
Maldives in the World

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Maldives - Introduction 2023
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Background: A sultanate since the 12th century, the Maldives became a British protectorate in 1887. The islands became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM dominated Maldives' political scene for 30 years, elected to six successive terms by single-party referendums. Following political demonstrations in the capital Male in August 2003, GAYOOM and his government pledged to embark upon a process of liberalization and democratic reforms, including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms. Political parties were legalized in 2005.


Maldives - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Area
Total: 298 km²
Land: 298 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat coral atolls, with white sandy beaches; sits atop the submarine volcanic Chagos-Laccadive Ridge

Elevation
Highest point: 8th tee, golf course, Villingi Island 5 m
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 2 m

Natural resources: fish
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 10% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 10% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 3.3% (2018 est.)
Forest: 3% (2018 est.)
Other: 73.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 300,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)
Agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise

Geography
Note: smallest Asian country; archipelago of 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean


Maldives - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago: 389,568 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -0.17% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 8.2% (2016 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Maldivian(s)
Adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups: homogeneous mixture of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, Australasian, and African resulting from historical changes in regional hegemony over marine trade routes

Languages: Dhivehi (official, dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English (spoken by most government officials)

Religions: Sunni Muslim (official)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22.25% (male 44,185/female 42,495)
15-64 years: 71.97% (male 146,154/female 134,233)
65 years and over: 5.78% (2023 est.) (male 9,866/female 12,635)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 35.6
Youth dependency ratio: 29.5
Elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
Potential support ratio: 16.2 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 31.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 30.8 years
Female: 31.9 years

Population growth rate: -0.17% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 15.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 4.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago

Urbanization
Urban population: 42% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 2.34% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 177,000 MALE (capital) (2018)

Environment
Current issues: rising sea levels threaten land; depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; inadequate sewage treatment; coral reef bleaching
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 13 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 1.44 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 0.14 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 23.2 years (2016/17 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 57 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 28 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 74.8 years
Female: 79.7 years

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 18.8% (2016/17)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 99% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 99.6% of population
Unimproved urban: 1% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 11.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.05 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 4.3 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 99.5% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 8.6% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 1.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 25.2% (2020 est.)
Male: 44.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 6% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.8% (2016/17)

Education expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 97.9%
Male: 97.6%
Female: 98.4% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 13 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 14 years (2019)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 17.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 12.6%


Maldives - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
Conventional short form: Maldives
Local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
Local short form: Dhivehi Raajje
Etymology: archipelago apparently named after the main island (and capital) of Male; the word "Maldives" means "the islands (dives) of Male"; alternatively, the name may derive from the Sanskrit word "maladvipa" meaning "garland of islands"; Dhivehi Raajje in Dhivehi means "Kingdom of the Dhivehi people"

Government type: presidential republic

Capital
Name: Male
Geographic coordinates: 4 10 N, 73 30 E
Time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: derived from the Sanskrit word "mahaalay" meaning "big house"

Administrative divisions: 21 administrative atolls (atholhuthah, singular - atholhu); Addu (Addu City), Ariatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Ari Atoll), Ariatholhu Uthuruburi (North Ari Atoll), Faadhippolhu, Felidhuatholhu (Felidhu Atoll), Fuvammulah, Hahdhunmathi, Huvadhuatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Huvadhu Atoll), Huvadhuatholhu Uthuruburi (North Huvadhu Atoll), Kolhumadulu, Maale (Male), Maaleatholhu (Male Atoll), Maalhosmadulu Dhekunuburi (South Maalhosmadulu), Maalhosmadulu Uthuruburi (North Maalhosmadulu), Miladhunmadulu Dhekunuburi (South Miladhunmadulu), Miladhunmadulu Uthuruburi (North Miladhunmadulu), Mulakatholhu (Mulaku Atoll), Nilandheatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Nilandhe Atoll), Nilandheatholhu Uthuruburi (North Nilandhe Atoll), Thiladhunmathee Dhekunuburi (South Thiladhunmathi), Thiladhunmathee Uthuruburi (North Thiladhunmathi)

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from the UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution
History: many previous; latest ratified 7 August 2008
Amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote by its membership and the signature of the president of the republic; passage of amendments to constitutional articles on rights and freedoms and the terms of office of Parliament and of the president also requires a majority vote in a referendum; amended 2015

Legal system: Islamic (sharia) legal system with English common law influences, primarily in commercial matters

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Maldives
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mohamed MUIZZI (sworn in 17 November 2023); Vice President-elect Hussain Mohamed LATHEEF (since 30 September 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government; inauguration scheduled for 17 November 2023
Head of government: President Mohamed MUIZZI ((sworn in 17 November 2023); Vice President-elect Hussain Mohamed LATHEEF (since 30 September 2023)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); first round held on 9 September 2023 and runoff held on 30 September 2023 (next to be held in 2,028)
Election results:

2023:
first round results - Mohamed MUIZZI 46.1%, Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH 39.1%, Ilyas LEBEEB 7.1%, other 7.7%; Mohamed MUZZI elected president in second round; Mohamed MUZZI (PNC) 54%, Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 46%

2018: Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH elected president in first round; Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 58.3%, Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (PPM) 41.7%


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Parliament or People's Majlis (87 seats - includes 2 seats added by the Elections Commission in late 2018; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 6 April 2019 (next to be held in April 2024)
Election results: percent of vote - MDP 44.7%, JP 10.8%, PPM 8.7%, PNC 6.4%, MDA 2.8%, other 5.6%, independent 21%; seats by party - MDP 65, JP 5, PPM 5, PNC 3, MDA 2, independent 7; composition - men 83, women 4, percent of women 4.6%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 justices
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission - a 10-member body of selected high government officials and the public - and upon confirmation by voting members of the People's Majlis; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: High Court; Criminal, Civil, Family, Juvenile, and Drug Courts; Magistrate Courts (on each of the inhabited islands)

Political parties and leaders:
Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Sheikh Imran ABDULLA]
Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party or DRP [Abdulla JABIR]
Maldives Development Alliance or MDA [Ahmed Shiyam MOHAMED]
Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]
Maldives Labor and Social Democratic Party or MLSDP [Ahmed SHIHAM]
Maldives Third Way Democrats or MTD [Ahmed ADEEB]
Maumoon/Maldives Reform Movement or MRM [Ahmed Faris MAUMOON]
National Democratic Congress [Yousuf MAANIU]
People's National Congress or PNC [Abdul Raheem ABDULLA]
Progressive Party of Maldives or PPM [Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom, founder]
Republican (Jumhooree) Party or JP [Qasim IBRAHIM]


International organization participation: ADB, AOSIS, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Maldives has no embassy in the US, but its Permanent Representative to the UN in New York, Abdul GHAFOOR Mohamed (since 12 December 2022), is accredited to the US and serves as ambassador
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Hugo Yue-Ho YON (since 6 September 2023); note - Ambassador YON is the first resident US ambassador to the Republic of Maldives
From the us embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 03, Sri Lanka; note - as of early November 2023, the US has no consular or diplomatic offices in Maldives; the US Mission to Maldives operates from US Embassy Colombo, Sri Lanka
From the us telephone: [94] (11) 249-8,500
From the us FAX: [94] (11) 243-7,345

Flag descriptionflag of Maldives: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent moon; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag; red recalls those who have sacrificed their lives in defense of their country, the green rectangle represents peace and prosperity, and the white crescent signifies Islam

National symbols: coconut palm, yellowfin tuna; national colors: red, green, white

National anthem
Name: "Gaumee Salaam" (National Salute)
Lyrics/music: Mohamed Jameel DIDI/Wannakuwattawaduge DON AMARADEVA
Note: lyrics adopted 1948, music adopted 1972; between 1948 and 1972, the lyrics were sung to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"

National heritage


Maldives - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income Indian Ocean island economy; major tourism, fishing, and shipping industries; high public debt; systemic corruption; crippled by COVID-19; ongoing deflation; poverty has tripled since pandemic began

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$9.785 billion (2021 est.)
$6.903 billion (2020 est.)
$10.38 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
41.75% (2021 est.)
-33.49% (2020 est.)
7.1% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: (2016 est.) NA
Government consumption: (2016 est.) NA
Investment in fixed capital: (2016 est.) NA
Investment in inventories: (2016 est.) NA
Exports of goods and services: 93.6% (2016 est.)
Imports of goods and services: 89% (2016 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3% (2015 est.)
Industry: 16% (2015 est.)
Services: 81% (2015 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: tourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining

Industrial production growth rate: 4.51% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 229,300 (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
6.08% (2021 est.)
6.33% (2020 est.)
5.34% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 17.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 12.6%

Population below poverty line: 8.2% (2016 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 29.3 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.2%
Highest 10%: 33.3% (FY09/10)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $993 million (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $1.797 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -10.1% (of GDP) (2016 est.)

Public debt:
63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
61.7% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 26.4% (of GDP) (2016 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$457.562 million (2021 est.)
-$1.327 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.49 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
0.54% (2021 est.)
-1.37% (2020 est.)
0.22% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$457.562 million (2021 est.)
-$1.327 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.49 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$3.95 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.787 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.742 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: Thailand 24%, United States 13%, China 12%, France 11%, Germany 11%, Italy 5%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)
Commodities: skipjack and stripe-bellied bonito, fish fillets, propane, tuna, butane, scrap iron (2021)

Imports:
$3.501 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.449 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.09 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: United Arab Emirates 24%, China 16%, Singapore 14%, India 11%, Malaysia 6%, Thailand 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, fruits, furniture, broadcasting equipment, lumber (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$805,808,200 (31 December 2021 est.)
$984,930,700 (31 December 2020 est.)
$753,496,300 (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$848.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$696.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
rufiyaa (MVR) per US dollar - 15.373 (2021 est.)
15.381 (2020 est.)
15.382 (2019 est.)
15.391 (2018 est.)
15.387 (2017 est.)



Maldives - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 586.5 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 545,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 99.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 15,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 10,840 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 2.286 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 2.286 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 59.69 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Maldives - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 13,376 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 706,043 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-owned radio and TV monopoly until recently; 4 state-operated and 7 privately owned TV stations and 4 state-operated and 7 privately owned radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .mv

Internet users
Total: 447,200 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 63,685 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2020 est.)


Maldives - Military 2023
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Military expenditures: not available

Military and security forcesMaldives - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 36
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,147,247 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7.75 million (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 8Q

Airports: 9 (2021)
With paved runways: 7
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 2
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 7
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 2
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways
Total: 93 km (2018)
Paved: 93 km (2018) - 60 km in Malée; 16 km on Addu Atolis; 17 km on Laamu
Note: island roads are mainly compacted coral

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 80 (2022)
By type: general cargo 30, oil tanker 20, other 30

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Male


Maldives - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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