Statistical information Mexico 2023Mexico

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Mexico in the World

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Mexico - Introduction 2023
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Background:
The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PEÑA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. Left-leaning anti-establishment politician and former mayor of Mexico City (2000-05) Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR, from the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), became president in December 2018.

Mexico is currently the second-largest (after Canada) goods trading partner of the US with nearly $780 billion in two-way goods trade in 2022. Mexico's GDP contracted by 8.2% in 2020 due to pandemic-induced closures, its lowest level since the Great Depression. Mexico’s economy is rebounding; it grew by 4.8% in 2021, driven largely by increased remittances, despite supply chain and pandemic-related challenges, and grew by 3% in 2022.



Mexico - Geography 2023
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Location: North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Area
Total: 1,964,375 km²
Land: 1,943,945 km²
Water: 20,430 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 4,389 km
Border countries: (3) Belize 276 km; Guatemala 958 km; US 3,155 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation
Highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m
Lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
Mean elevation: 1,111 m

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 54.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 11.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 41.7% (2018 est.)
Forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)
Other: 11.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 60,620 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Rio Grande river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 3,057 km; Colorado river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 2,333 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Gulf of Mexico) Rio Grande/Bravo (607,965 km²)
Pacific Ocean drainage: (Gulf of California) Colorado (703,148 km²)


Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 13.17 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 8.56 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 67.83 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 461.89 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

Geography
Note note 1: strategic location on southern border of the US; Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
Note note 2: some of the world's most important food crops were first domesticated in Mexico; the "Three Sisters" companion plants - winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans - served as the main agricultural crops for various North American Indian groups; all three apparently originated in Mexico but then were widely disseminated through much of North America; avocado, amaranth, and chili peppers also emanate from Mexico, as does vanilla, the world's most popular aroma and flavor spice; although cherry tomatoes originated in Ecuador, their domestication in Mexico transformed them into the larger modern tomato
Note note 3: the Sac Actun cave system at 348 km (216 mi) is the longest underwater cave in the world and the second longest cave worldwide, after Mammoth Cave in the United States (see "Geography - note" under United States)
Note 4: the prominent Yucatán Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico); formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth's plant and animal species - including the non-avian dinosaurs


Mexico - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City: 129,875,529 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.61% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 41.9% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Mexican(s)
Adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups: Mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)
Note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity

Languages: Spanish only 93.8%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.4%, indigenous only 0.6%, unspecified 0.2%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2020 est.)
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant/evangelical Christian 11.2%, other 0.002%, unaffiliated (includes atheism) 10.6% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23.76% (male 15,844,300/female 15,009,047)
15-64 years: 68.22% (male 43,086,673/female 45,518,891)
65 years and over: 8.02% (2023 est.) (male 4,560,225/female 5,856,393)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 49.4
Youth dependency ratio: 37.3
Elderly dependency ratio: 12.2
Potential support ratio: 8.2 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 30.6 years (2023 est.)
Male: 28.9 years
Female: 32.3 years

Population growth rate: 0.61% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City

Urbanization
Urban population: 81.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 22.281 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.420 million Guadalajara, 5.117 million Monterrey, 3.345 million Puebla, 2.626 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.260 million Tijuana (2023)

Environment
Current issues: scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
Current issues note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 17.83 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 486.41 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 135.77 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 21.3 years (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 59 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 70.3 years
Female: 76.8 years

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73.1% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 98.3% of population
Improved total: 99.7% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 1.7% of population
Unimproved total: 0.3% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.43 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 1 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.9% of population

rural: 96.4% of population

total: 99.2% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.1% of population

rural: 3.6% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: intermediate (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 28.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 4.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.15 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 13.1% (2020 est.)
Male: 19.9% (2020 est.)
Female: 6.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.2% (2021)

Education expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95.2%
Male: 96.1%
Female: 94.5% (2020)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 7.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.6%


Mexico - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: United Mexican States
Conventional short form: Mexico
Local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Local short form: Mexico
Former: Mexican Republic, Mexican Empire
Etymology: named after the capital city, whose name stems from the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Government type: federal presidential republic

Capital
Name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)
Geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
Time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: DST was permanently removed in October 2022
Time zone note: Mexico has four time zones
Etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Administrative divisions: 32 states (estados, singular - estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917
Amendments: proposed by the Congress of the Union; passage requires approval by at least two thirds of the members present and approval by a majority of the state legislatures; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system: civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: not specified
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)
Election results:
2018: Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA Cortés (PAN) 22.3%, José Antonio MEADE Kuribreña (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRÍGUEZ Calderón 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%

2012: Enrique PEÑA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PEÑA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VÁZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%


Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Unión consists of:
Senate or Cámara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)

Chamber of Deputies or Cámara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president, and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve 15-year terms; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms
Subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
Note: in April 2021, the Mexican congress passed a judicial reform which changed 7 articles of the constitution and preceded a new Organic Law on the Judicial Branch of the Federation

Political parties and leaders:
Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTAÑEDA Hoeflich]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutiérrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de México) or PVEM [Karen CASTREJÓN Trujillo]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneración Nacional) or MORENA [Mario DELGADO Carillo]
National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional) or PAN [Antonio CORTÉS Mendoza]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Democrática) or PRD [Jesús ZAMBRANO Grijalva]
This Is For Mexico (Va Por México) (alliance that includes PAN, PRI, and PRD)
Together We Make History (Juntos Hacemos Historia) (alliance that included MORENA, PT, PVEM) (dissolved 23 December 2020)



International organization participation: APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, USMCA, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Esteban MOCTEZUMA Barragán (since 20 April 2021)
In the us chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,006
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
In the us email address and website:
mexembusa@sre.gob.mx

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ken SALAZAR (since 14 September 2021)
From the us embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtémoc, 6,500 Mexico, CDMX
From the us mailing address: 8,700 Mexico City Place, Washington DC 20,521-8,700
From the us telephone: (011) [52]-55-5,080-2000
From the us FAX: (011) 52-55-5,080-2005
From the us email address and website:
ACSMexicoCity@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Mexico: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
Note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of green and red, and does not display anything in its white band

National symbols: golden eagle, dahlia; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem
Name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
Lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
Note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 35 (27 cultural, 6 natural, 2 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Mexico City (c); Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatepetl (c); [link]


Mexico - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: one of the world’s largest economies; USMCA buttresses its manufacturing sector; has underperformed growth targets for three decades; COVID-19 disrupted export-based economy; corruption and cartel-based violence undermine economic stability

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$2.418 trillion (2021 est.)
$2.309 trillion (2020 est.)
$2.51 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.72% (2021 est.)
-7.99% (2020 est.)
-0.2% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 22.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 37.8% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)
Industry: 31.9% (2017 est.)
Services: 64.5% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.44% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 56.132 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.38% (2021 est.)
4.45% (2020 est.)
3.48% (2019 est.)

Note: underemployment may be as high as 25%

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 7.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.6%

Population below poverty line: 41.9% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 45.4 (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2%
Highest 10%: 40% (2014)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $264.261 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $313.358 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
54.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
56.8% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 14.29% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$4.817 billion (2021 est.)
$27.103 billion (2020 est.)
-$3.406 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.69% (2021 est.)
3.4% (2020 est.)
3.64% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$4.817 billion (2021 est.)
$27.103 billion (2020 est.)
-$3.406 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$522.235 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$434.366 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$492.657 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 75% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, computers, delivery trucks, crude petroleum, video displays, insulated wiring (2021)

Imports:
$544.752 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$411.458 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$495.391 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 54%, China 14% (2019)
Commodities: integrated circuits, refined petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, office machinery/parts, telephones (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$207.799 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$199.069 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$183.056 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Note: Mexico also maintains access to an $88 million Flexible Credit Line with the IMF

Debt external:
$456.713 billion (2019 est.)
$448.268 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar - 20.272 (2021 est.)
21.486 (2020 est.)
19.264 (2019 est.)
19.244 (2018 est.)
18.927 (2017 est.)



Mexico - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 267.34 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 5.954 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 9.965 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 93.43 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 75.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 3.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 4.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 6.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 7.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 1,905,500 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 1,928,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,283,300 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 3,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 5,786,100,000 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 844,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 155,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 867,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 27,037,730,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 86,101,223,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 53.037 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 59,119,362,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 180.321 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 463.739 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 43.24 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 260.311 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 160.188 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 61.597 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Mexico - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 27,184,669 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 123,920,752 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: telecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 885 TV stations and 1,841 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks (2022)

Internet country code: .mx

Internet users
Total: 98.8 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 76% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 21,936,131 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2020 est.)


Mexico - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2021)
0.6% of GDP (2020)
0.5% of GDP (2019)
0.5% of GDP (2018)


Military and security forces:
the Mexican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de México) are divided between the Secretariat of National Defense and the Secretariat of the Navy:

Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, SEDENA): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM), National Guard; Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, SEMAR): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2023)

Note: the National Guard was formed in 2019 of personnel from the former Federal Police (disbanded in December 2019) and military police units of the Army and Navy; up until September 2022, the Guard was under the civilian-led Secretariat of Security and Civilian Protection, while the SEDENA had day-to-day operational control and provided the commanders and the training; in September 2022, complete control of the Guard was handed over to the SEDENA/Mexican Army; the Guard, along with state and municipal police, is responsible for enforcing the law and maintaining order; the regular military also actively supports police operations

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age (16 with parental consent) for voluntary enlistment for men and women; 18 years of age for compulsory military service for men (selection for service determined by lottery); conscript service obligation is 12 months; those selected serve on Saturdays in a Batallón del Servicio Militar Nacional (National Military Service Battalion) composed entirely of 12-month Servicio Militar Nacional (SMN) conscripts; conscripts remain in reserve status until the age of 40; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces; National Guard: single men and women 18-30 years of age may volunteer (2023)
Note: as of 2022, women comprised about 15% of the active duty military

Terrorist groups


Mexico - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 16 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 370
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 64,569,640 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,090,380,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: XA

Airports: 1,714 (2021)
With paved runways: 243
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 1,471
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 243
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 1,471
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 17,210 km natural gas (2022), 9,757 km oil (2017), 10,237 km refined products (2020)

Railways
Total: 23,389 km (2017)
Standard gauge: 23,389 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified)

Roadways
Total: 704,884 km (2017)
Paved: 175,526 km (2017) (includes 10,845 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 529,358 km (2017)

Waterways: 2,900 km (2012) (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast)

Merchant marine
Total: 669 (2022)
By type: container ship 1, bulk carrier 5, general cargo 10, oil tanker 32, other 621

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz
Oil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal
Cruise ports: Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada
Container ports teus: Lazaro Cardenas (1,686,076), Manzanillo (3,371,400), Veracruz (1,165,043) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Altamira, Ensenada


Mexico - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalMexico-Belize: Mexico and Belize are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 35,755 (Honduras), 13,531 (El Salvador) (mid-year 2022); 91,359 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2022)
IDPs: 386,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2022)
Stateless persons: 13 (2022)

Illicit drugs: significant source and transit country for fentanyl, fentanyl-laced counterfeit pills, other synthetic opioids, cocaine from South America, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine destined for the United States; a destination for synthetic drug precursor chemicals from China, India, and other countries


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