Statistical information Moldova 2023Moldova

Map of Moldova | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Moldova - Introduction 2023
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Background: A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River in the breakaway region of Transnistria.


Moldova - Geography 2023
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Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 33,851 km²
Land: 32,891 km²
Water: 960 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries
Total: 1,885 km
Border countries: (2) Romania 683 km; Ukraine 1202 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation
Highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
Mean elevation: 139 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 74.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 55.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 9.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 10.7% (2018 est.)
Forest: 11.9% (2018 est.)
Other: 13.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,155 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km: Dunărea (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Nistru (Dniester) (shared with Ukraine [s/m]) - 1,411 km note - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 160 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 580 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 12.27 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: landslides

Geography
Note: landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone


Moldova - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti: 3,250,532 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -0.58% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 7.3% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Moldovan(s)
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)

Languages: Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.); note - data represent mother tongue; as of March 2023, Romanian replaced Moldovan as the name of Moldova's official language
Major-language samples:
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Moldovan/Romanian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic <0.1%, atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.9% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.01% (male 301,432/female 284,034)
15-64 years: 66.37% (male 1,087,397/female 1,069,902)
65 years and over: 15.62% (2023 est.) (male 203,889/female 303,878)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 39.6
Youth dependency ratio: 29.7
Elderly dependency ratio: 20.4
Potential support ratio: 4.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 39.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 38.1 years
Female: 40.8 years

Population growth rate: -0.58% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 8.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti

Urbanization
Urban population: 43.4% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.09% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 488,000 CHISINAU (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion and declining soil fertility from poor farming methods
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 12.37 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 5.12 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 3.29 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 25.2 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 11.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 65.8 years
Female: 73.9 years

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 56% (2020)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.9% of population
Improved rural: 87% of population
Improved total: 92.1% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.1% of population
Unimproved rural: 13% of population
Unimproved total: 7.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.1 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 5.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99% of population

rural: 83.1% of population

total: 89.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
1% of population

rural: 16.9% of population

total: 10.1% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 18.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 7.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.53 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 3.57 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.1 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 29% (2020 est.)
Male: 51.7% (2020 est.)
Female: 6.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures: 6.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.6%
Male: 99.7%
Female: 99.5% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2021)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 5.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 14.7%


Moldova - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local long form: Republica Moldova
Local short form: Moldova
Former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: origin unclear but may derive from the archaic Romanian word chisla ("spring" or "water source") and noua ("new") because the original settlement was built at the site of a small spring
Note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)

Administrative divisions: 32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)

Constitution
History: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994
Amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by at least one third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system: civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Maia SANDU (since 24 December 2020)
Head of government: Prime Minister Dorin RECEAN (since 16 February 2023)
Cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament
Elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 November 2020 (next to be held in fall 2024); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament
Election results:

2020:
Maia SANDU elected president; percent of vote (second round results) - Maia SANDU (PAS) 57.7%, Igor DODON (PSRM) 42.3%

2016: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote 52.1%, and Maia SANDU 47.9%


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 51 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 50 members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; all members serve 4-year terms
Elections: last held on 11 July 2021 (next scheduled in July 2,025)
Election results:

2021: percent of vote by party - PAS 52.8%, BECS (PSRM+PCRM) 27.1%, SOR 5.7%; seats by party - PAS 63, BECS 32, SOR 6; composition as of April 2023 - men 62, women 39, percent of women 38.6%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body of judicial officials; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy for 6-year terms; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Party of Action and Solidarity or PAS [Igor GROSU]
Communist Party or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
Socialist Party or PSRM [Igor DODON]
SOR Party [llan SHOR]


International organization participation: BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEU (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Note: Moldova is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Viorel URSU (since 12 December 2022)
In the us chancery: 2,101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 667-2,624
In the us email address and website:
washington@mfa.gov.md

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kent D. LOGSDON (since 16 February 2022)
From the us embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
From the us mailing address: 7,080 Chisinau Place, Washington DC 20,521-7,080
From the us telephone: [373] (22) 408-300
From the us FAX: [373] (22) 233-044
From the us email address and website:
ChisinauACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: three equal vertical bands of Prussian blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of dark gold (brown) outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag displays a mirrored image of the coat of arms
Note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia

National symbols: aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem
Name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
Lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
Note: adopted 1994

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Struve Geodetic Arc


Moldova - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income Eastern European economy; sustained growth reversed by COVID-19; significant remittances; Russian energy and regional dependence; agricultural exporter; declining workforce due to emigration and low fertility

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$36.637 billion (2021 est.)
$32.153 billion (2020 est.)
$34.715 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
13.94% (2021 est.)
-7.38% (2020 est.)
3.68% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 85.8% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 19% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.9% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.4% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 42.5% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -70.7% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 17.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 62% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -0.67% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 810,000 (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.96% (2021 est.)
3.82% (2020 est.)
5.1% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 5.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 14.7%

Population below poverty line: 7.3% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 26 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 4.2%
Highest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $3.582 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $3.754 billion (2019 est.)
Note: National Public Budget
Surplus  or deficit: -0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
33.01% of GDP (2020 est.)
24.95% of GDP (2019 est.)
27.02% of GDP (2018 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 17.41% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.26% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$1.699 billion (2021 est.)
-$886.899 million (2020 est.)
-$1.106 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.11% (2021 est.)
3.77% (2020 est.)
4.84% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$1.699 billion (2021 est.)
-$886.899 million (2020 est.)
-$1.106 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$4.197 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.222 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.662 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Romania 27%, Russia 9%, Italy 9%, Germany 9%, Turkey 6%, Poland 5% (2019)
Commodities: insulated wiring, wheat, sunflower seeds, rolled iron, wine, corn, seats (2021)

Imports:
$7.915 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.918 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$6.608 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Romania 20%, Russia 10%, Ukraine 9%, Germany 8%, China 7%, Turkey 6%, Italy 6% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, cars, insulated wiring, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.902 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$3.784 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$3.06 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$7.232 billion (2019 est.)
$7.16 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar - 17.68 (2021 est.)
17.322 (2020 est.)
17.573 (2019 est.)
16.802 (2018 est.)
18.499 (2017 est.)



Moldova - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 4.591 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 629 million kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 594,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 93.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 1.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 4.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 22,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 232 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 275 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 18,160 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 57,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 2.802 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 2.802 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 8.114 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 374,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 2.968 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 4.773 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 40.398 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Moldova - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 951,138 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 3,900,179 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2019)

Internet country code: .md

Internet users
Total: 1.891 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 61% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 719,001 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2020 est.)


Moldova - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.4% of GDP (2018 est.)


Military and security forces: Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova (Forțele Armate ale Republicii Moldova): National Army (comprised of a General Staff, a Land Forces Command, and an Air Force Command); Ministry of Internal Affairs: General Carabinieri Inspectorate (aka Carabinieri Troops or Trupele de Carabinieri) (2023)
Note 1: the Carabinieri is a quasi-militarized gendarmerie responsible for protecting public buildings, maintaining public order, and other national security functions
Note 2: the national police force reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and is the primary law enforcement body, responsible for internal security, public order, traffic, border security, and criminal investigations; the Moldovan Border Police (Poliției de Frontieră) are under the Ministry of Internal Affairs; prior to 2012, Border Police were under the armed forces and known as the Border Troops

Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 12-month service obligation (2023)
Note: as of 2019, women made up about 20% of the military's full-time personnel

Terrorist groups


Moldova - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,135,999 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 640,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: ER

Airports: 7 (2021)
With paved runways: 5
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 2
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 5
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 2
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines: 2,026 km gas (2021) (2021)

Railways
Total: 1,171 km (2014)
Standard gauge: 14 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge
Broad gauge: 1,157 km (2014) 1.520-m gauge

Roadways
Total: 9,352 km (2012)
Paved: 8,835 km (2012)
Unpaved: 517 km (2012)

Waterways: 558 km (2011) (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut Rivers)

Merchant marine
Total: 126 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 2, general cargo 79, oil tanker 7, other 33

Ports and terminals


Moldova - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalMoldova-Romania: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 112,810 (Ukraine) (as of 24 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 1,701 (2022)

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity


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