Statistical information Monaco 2023Monaco

Map of Monaco | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Monaco in the World
Monaco in the World

Volotea Air

Monaco - Introduction 2023
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Background: The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present-day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized control in 1297 but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, coastal Mediterranean scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Monaco - Geography 2023
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Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map referenceEurope

Total: 2 km²
Land: 2 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 6 km
Border countries: (1) France 6 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Highest point: Chemin des Revoires on Mont Agel 162 m
Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Natural resources: none
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)
Forest: 0% (2018 est.)
Other: 99% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 km² (2022)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)
Agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: none

Note: second-smallest independent state in the world (after the Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban

Monaco - People 2023
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Distribution: the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km: 31,597 (2023 est.)
Note: immigrants make up almost 68% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)
Growth rate: 0.66% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: NA

Noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
Adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: Monegasque 32.1%, French 19.9%, Italian 15.3%, British 5%, Belgian 2.3%, Swiss 2%, German 1.9%, Russian 1.8%, American 1.1%, Dutch 1.1%, Moroccan 1%, other 16.6% (2016 est.)
Note: data represent population by country of birth

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Major-language samples:
Gheos World Guide, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 9.4% (male 1,522/female 1,448)
15-64 years: 54.42% (male 8,638/female 8,558)
65 years and over: 36.18% (2023 est.) (male 5,114/female 6,317)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 95.2
Youth dependency ratio: 25
Elderly dependency ratio: 70.2
Potential support ratio: 1.4 (2021)

Median age
Total: 56.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 54.5 years
Female: 57.6 years

Population growth rate: 0.66% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 6.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km

Urban population: 100% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 39,000 MONACO (capital) (2018)

Current issues: no serious issues; actively monitors pollution levels in air and water
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 9.21 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Methane emissions: 0.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 1.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 89.6 years (2023 est.)
Male: 85.8 years
Female: 93.6 years

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 1.7% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 7.51 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density: 13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 26.6% (2016 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 25.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 27.9%

Monaco - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
Conventional short form: Monaco
Local long form: Principaute de Monaco
Local short form: Monaco
Etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words "monos" (single, alone) and "oikos" (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Name: Monaco
Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words monos (single, alone) and oikos (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"

Administrative divisions: none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco

Dependent areas

Independence: 1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)

National holiday: National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)

History: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962
Amendments: proposed by joint agreement of the chief of state (the prince) and the National Council; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of National Council members; amended 2002

Legal system: civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
Head of government: Minister of State Pierre DARTOUT (since 1 September 2020)
Cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 5 February 2023 (next to be held in February 2,028)
Election results: percent of vote by coalition - Monegasque National Union 100%; seats by coalition - Monegasque National Union 24; composition - men 13, women 11, percent of women 45.8%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance

Political parties and leaders:
Monegasque National Union [Brigitte BOCCONE-PAGES] (includes Horizon Monaco, Primo!, Union Monegasque)
Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
Priorite Monaco or Primo! [Stephane VALERI]
Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]

International organization participation: CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)
In the us chancery: 888 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,006
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-1530
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 244-7,656
In the us email address and website:


From the us embassy: US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US Ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco; +(33)(1) 43-12-22-22, enter zero "0" after the automated greeting; US Embassy Paris, 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75,008 Paris, France

Flag descriptionflag of Monaco: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners
Note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbols: red and white lozenges (diamond shapes); national colors: red, white

National anthem
Name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)
Lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT
Note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions

National heritage

Monaco - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income European economy; non-EU euro user; considered a tax haven; tourism and banking are largest sectors; negatively impacted by COVID-19; major oceanographic museum; among most expensive real estate; major state-owned enterprises

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$7.672 billion (2015 est.)
$7.279 billion (2014 est.)
$6.79 billion (2013 est.)

Note: data are in 2015 US dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
21.55% (2021 est.)
-12.97% (2020 est.)
6.91% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 0% (2013)
Industry: 14% (2013)
Services: 86% (2013)

Agriculture products

Industries: banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate: 6.8% (2015)

Labor force: 52,000 (2014 est.)
Note: includes all foreign workers
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (2012)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 26.6% (2016 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 25.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 27.9%

Population below poverty line: NA

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $896.3 million (2011 est.)
Expenditures: $953.6 million (2011 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues: 14.9% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices: 1.5% (2010)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

$964.6 million (2017 est.)
$1.115 billion (2011)

Note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Partners: Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Spain
Commodities: jewelry, perfumes, watches, packaged medicines, cars (2021)

$1.371 billion (2017 est.)
$1.162 billion (2011 est.)

Note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Partners: Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Germany, China (2021)
Commodities: jewelry, cars and vehicle parts, recreational boats, plastic products, artwork (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:  NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)

Note: while not an EU member state, Monaco, due to its preexisting monetary and banking agreements with France, has a 1998 monetary agreement with the EU to produce limited euro coinage—but not banknotes—that began enforcement in January 2002 and superseded by a new EU agreement in 2012

Monaco - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Monaco - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 44,649 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 36,255 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: TV Monte-Carlo operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco

Internet country code: .mc

Internet users
Total: 31,820 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 20,877 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (2020 est.)

Monaco - Military 2023
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces: no regular military forces; Ministry of Interior: Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince’s Company of Carabiniers), Corps des Sapeurs-pompiers de Monaco (Fire and Emergency), Police Department (2023)
Note: the primary responsibility for the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is guarding the palace; the Police maintain public order

Military service age and obligation: the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is staffed by French nationals (2023)

Terrorist groups

Monaco - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 3A


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (2021)


Note: Monaco has a single railway station but does not operate its own train service; the French operator SNCF operates rail services in Monaco

Total: (2010)
Paved: (2010)


Merchant marine

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Hercules Port

Monaco - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Iberostar Hotels

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