Statistical information Montserrat 2023Montserrat

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Montserrat in the World
Montserrat in the World


Montserrat - Introduction 2023
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Background: English and Irish colonists from St. Kitts first settled on Montserrat in 1632; the first African slaves arrived three decades later. The British and French fought for possession of the island for most of the 18th century, but it finally was confirmed as a British possession in 1783. The island's sugar plantation economy was converted to small farm landholdings in the mid-19th century. Much of this island was devastated and two thirds of the population fled abroad because of the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano that began on 18 July 1995. Montserrat has endured volcanic activity since, with the last eruption occurring in 2013.

Montserrat - Geography 2023
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Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Total: 102 km²
Land: 102 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland

Highest point: Soufriere Hills volcano pre-eruption height was 915 m; current lava dome is subject to periodic build up and collapse; estimated dome height was 1,050 m in 2015
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

Natural resources: NEGL
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 30% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 20% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 10% (2018 est.)
Forest: 25% (2018 est.)
Other: 45% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 km² (2022)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: volcanic eruptions; severe hurricanes (June to November)

Note: the island is entirely volcanic in origin and comprised of three major volcanic centers of differing ages

Montserrat - People 2023
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Distribution: only the northern half of the island is populated, the southern portion is uninhabitable due to volcanic activity: 5,440 (2023 est.)
Note: an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned
Growth rate: 0.46% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: NA

Noun: Montserratian(s)
Adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic groups: African/Black 86.2%, mixed 4.8%, Hispanic/Spanish 3%, Caucasian/White 2.7%, East Indian/Indian 1.6%, other 1.8% (2018 est.)

Languages: English

Religions: Protestant 71.4% (includes Anglican 17.7%, Pentecostal/Full Gospel 16.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 15%, Methodist 13.9%, Church of God 6.7%, other Protestant 2%), Roman Catholic 11.4%, Rastafarian 1.4%, Hindu 1.2%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Muslim 0.4%, other/not stated 5.1%, none 7.9% (2018 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 15.92% (male 446/female 420)
15-64 years: 76.6% (male 2,051/female 2,116)
65 years and over: 7.48% (2023 est.) (male 217/female 190)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 43.9
Youth dependency ratio: 19.2
Elderly dependency ratio: 24.7
Potential support ratio: 4 (2021)

Median age
Total: 36.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 35.1 years
Female: 37.3 years

Population growth rate: 0.46% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 10.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: only the northern half of the island is populated, the southern portion is uninhabitable due to volcanic activity

Urban population: 9.3% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.94% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas

Current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.9 years (2023 est.)
Male: 76.8 years
Female: 75 years

Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: NA
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: 98.1% of population
Unimproved urban: NA
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: 1.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: NA

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:

rural: NA

total: NA

Unimproved urban:

rural: NA

total: NA


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 5.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 14 years
Male: 13 years
Female: 15 years (2019)

Youth unemployment

Montserrat - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Montserrat
Etymology: island named by explorer Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 after the Benedictine abbey Santa Maria de Montserrat, near Barcelona, Spain

Government type: parliamentary democracy; self-governing overseas territory of the UK

Name: Plymouth; note - Plymouth was abandoned in 1997 because of volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades Estate, the de facto capital, in the Carr's Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat
Geographic coordinates: 16 42 N, 62 13 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: now entirely deserted because of volcanic activity, the city was originally named after Plymouth, England; de jure, Plymouth remains the capital city of Montserrat; it is therefore the only ghost town that serves as the capital of a political entity

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter

Dependent areas

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, usually celebrated the Monday after the second Saturday in June (1926)

History: previous 1960; latest put into force 20 October 2010 (The Montserrat Constitution Order 2010)
Amendments: amended 2011, 2020

Legal system: English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship: see United Kingdom

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Sarah TUCKER (since 6 April 2023)
Head of government: Premier Easton TAYLOR-FARRELL (since 19 November 2019); note - effective with Constitution Order 2010, October 2010, the office of premier replaced the office of chief minister
Cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the premier, 3 other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes premier

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Legislative Assembly (12 seats; 9 members directly elected in a single constituency by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds to serve 5-year terms; the speaker, normally elected from the outside by the Assembly for a 5-year term, and 2 ex-officio members - the attorney general and financial secretary)
Elections: last held on 18 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024)
Election results: percent of vote by party - MCAP 42.7%, PDM 29.9%, other 17.1%; seats by party - MCAP 5, PDM 3, independent 1; composition, including the speaker and 2 ex-officio members - men 8, women 4, percent of women 33.3%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 1 assigned to Montserrat; Montserrat is also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: magistrate's court

Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Easton Taylor FARRELL]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Paul LEWIS]

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none (overseas territory of the UK)
From the us embassy: none (overseas territory of the UK); alternate contact is the US Embassy in Barbados [1] (246) 227-4,000; US Embassy Bridgetown, Wildey Business Park, St. Michael BB 14,006, Barbados, WI

Flag descriptionflag of Montserrat: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the arms feature a woman in green dress, Erin, the female personification of Ireland, standing beside a yellow harp and embracing a large dark cross with her right arm; Erin and the harp are symbols of Ireland reflecting the territory's Irish ancestry; blue represents awareness, trustworthiness, determination, and righteousness

National symbols

National anthem
Note: as a territory of the UK, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

National heritage

Montserrat - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: formerly high-income economy; volcanic activity destroyed much of original infrastructure and economy; new capital and port is being developed; key geothermal and solar power generation; key music recording operations

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$167.4 million (2011 est.)
$155.9 million (2010 est.)
$162.7 million (2009 est.)

Real gdp growth rate:
7.4% (2011 est.)
-4.2% (2010 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 90.8% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 50.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 17.9% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 29.5% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -88.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.9% (2017 est.)
Industry: 7.8% (2017 est.)
Services: 90.3% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances

Industrial production growth rate: -21% (2017 est.)

Labor force: 4,521 (2012)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.6% (2017 est.)
6% (1998 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $66.67 million (2017 est.)
Expenditures: $47.04 million (2017 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
-$15.4 million (2017 est.)
-$12.2 million (2016 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.2% (2017 est.)
-0.2% (2016 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$15.4 million (2017 est.)
-$12.2 million (2016 est.)

$11.9 million (2021 est.)
$4.4 million (2017 est.)
$5.2 million (2016 est.)

Partners: Canada 48%, United States 14%, Belgium 14%, France 11%, Cost Rica 3% (2021)
Commodities: iron products, needles and catheters, sand, dental filling pharmaceuticals, gravel (2021)

$15.3 million (2021 est.)
$39.44 million (2017 est.)
$36.1 million (2016 est.)

Partners: United States 47%, Trinidad and Tobago 19%, United Kingdom 9%, Barbados 3%, Japan 2% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, food preparations, cars, broadcasting equipment, poultry (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$47.58 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$51.47 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt external: $8.9 million (1997)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2017 est.)
2.7 (2016 est.)
2.7 (2015 est.)
2.7 (2014 est.)
2.7 (2013 est.)

Montserrat - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 21.56 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 5,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 200 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 406 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 33,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 33,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 0 Btu/person (2019 est.)

Montserrat - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 3,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 67 (2020 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 5,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2020 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: Radio Montserrat, a public radio broadcaster, transmits on 1 station and has a repeater transmission to a second station; repeater transmissions from the GEM Radio Network of Trinidad and Tobago provide another 2 radio stations; cable and satellite TV available (2007)

Internet country code: .ms

Internet users
Total: 2,473 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 56.2% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 2,700 (2018 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (2018 est.)

Montserrat - Military 2023
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces: no regular military forces; Royal Montserrat Defense Force (ceremonial, civil defense duties), Montserrat Police Force

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Montserrat - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: VP-M

Airports: 1 (2021)
With paved runways: 1
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with paved runways: 1
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways




Note: volcanic eruptions that began in 1995 destroyed most of the 227 km road system; a new road infrastructure has been built on the north end of the island


Merchant marine

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Little Bay, Plymouth

Montserrat - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe


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