Statistical information Mozambique 2023Mozambique

Map of Mozambique | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mozambique in the World
Mozambique in the World


Mozambique - Introduction 2023
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Background: In the first half of the second millennium A.D., northern Mozambican port towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and India. The Portuguese were able to wrest much of the coastal trade from Arab Muslims in the centuries after 1500 and to set up their own colonies. Portugal did not relinquish Mozambique until 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2015. RENAMO’s residual armed forces intermittently engaged in a low-level insurgency after 2012, but a late December 2016 cease-fire eventually led to the two sides signing a comprehensive peace deal in August 2019. Elections in October 2019, challenged by Western observers and civil society as being problematic, resulted in resounding wins for NYUSI and FRELIMO across the country. Since October 2017, violent extremists - who an official ISIS media outlet recognized as ISIS's network in Mozambique for the first time in June 2019 - have been conducting attacks against civilians and security services in the northern province of Cabo Delgado. In 2021, Rwanda and the Southern African Development Community deployed forces to support Mozambique’s efforts to counter the extremist group.

Mozambique - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 799,380 km²
Land: 786,380 km²
Water: 13,000 km²
Comparative: slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total: 4,783 km
Border countries: (6) Malawi 1498 km; South Africa 496 km; Eswatini 108 km; Tanzania 840 km; Zambia 439 km; Zimbabwe 1,402 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 345 m

Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 56.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 6.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 49.6% (2018 est.)
Forest: 43.7% (2018 est.)
Other: 0% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,180 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Rio Zambeze (Zambezi) river mouth (shared with Zambia [s]), Angola, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe) - 2,740 km; Rio Limpopo river mouth (shared with South Africa [s], Botswana, and Zimbabwe) - 1,800 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 370 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 1.08 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 217.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces

Note: the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

Mozambique - People 2023
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Distribution: three large populations clusters are found along the southern coast between Maputo and Inhambane, in the central area between Beira and Chimoio along the Zambezi River, and in and around the northern cities of Nampula, Cidade de Nacala, and Pemba; the northwest and southwest are the least populated areas as shown in this [link]: 32,513,805 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 2.55% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 46.1% (2014 est.)

Noun: Mozambican(s)
Adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups: African 99% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Mestizo 0.8%, other (includes European, Indian, Pakistani, Chinese) 0.2% (2017 est.)

Languages: Makhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Tsonga 8.6%, Nyanja 8.1, Sena 7.1%, Lomwe 7.1%, Chuwabo 4.7%, Ndau 3.8%, Tswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 27.2%, Muslim 18.9%, Zionist Christian 15.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.3%, Anglican 1.7%, other 4.8%, none 13.9%, unspecified 2.5% (2017 est.)

Demographic profile: Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population - 45% of the population is younger than 15, as of 2020. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth, as of 2022.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 45% (male 7,413,197/female 7,217,953)
15-64 years: 52.1% (male 8,153,175/female 8,787,792)
65 years and over: 2.9% (2023 est.) (male 461,904/female 479,784)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 86.1
Youth dependency ratio: 81.3
Elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
Potential support ratio: 20.8 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 17.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 16.6 years
Female: 17.8 years

Population growth rate: 2.55% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 36.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: three large populations clusters are found along the southern coast between Maputo and Inhambane, in the central area between Beira and Chimoio along the Zambezi River, and in and around the northern cities of Nampula, Cidade de Nacala, and Pemba; the northwest and southwest are the least populated areas as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 38.8% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 4.24% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.852 million Matola, 1.163 million MAPUTO (capital), 969,000 Nampula (2023)

Current issues: increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; soil erosion; deforestation; water pollution caused by artisanal mining; pollution of surface and coastal waters; wildlife preservation (elephant poaching for ivory)
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 16.45 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 7.94 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 16.26 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 19.2 years (2011 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 127 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 61.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 57.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 57.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 56.4 years
Female: 59 years

Total fertility rate: 4.74 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.1% (2015)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 93.4% of population
Improved rural: 61.5% of population
Improved total: 73.3% of population
Unimproved urban: 6.6% of population
Unimproved rural: 38.5% of population
Unimproved total: 26.7% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 7.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
71.9% of population (2015 est.)

rural: 24.7% of population

total: 42.2% of population

Unimproved urban:
28.1% of population

rural: 75.3% of population

total: 57.8% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Mozambique is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 7.2% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 1.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.22 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.21 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 14.3% (2020 est.)
Male: 23% (2020 est.)
Female: 5.6% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.6% (2019/20)

Education expenditures: 6.3% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 63.4%
Male: 74.1%
Female: 53.8% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 10 years
Male: 10 years
Female: 9 years (2017)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 8.1%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.2%

Mozambique - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
Conventional short form: Mozambique
Local long form: Republica de Mocambique
Local short form: Mocambique
Former: Portuguese East Africa, People's Republic of Mozambique
Etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Maputo
Geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: reputedly named after the Maputo River, which drains into Maputo Bay south of the city

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

History: previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one third of the Assembly of the Republic membership; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions, including the independence and sovereignty of the state, the republican form of government, basic rights and freedoms, and universal suffrage, requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; referenda not required for passage of other amendments; amended 2007, 2018

Legal system: mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law and customary law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Adriano Afonso MALEIANE (since 3 March 2022); note - President NYUSI removed Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO from office on 3 March 2022 as part of a cabinet reshuffle
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president elected directly by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2019 (next to be held on 9 October 2024); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results:

: Filipe NYUSI reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 73.0%, Ossufo MOMADE (RENAMO) 21.9%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 5.1%

2014:  Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; 248 members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 15 October 2019 (next to be held on 15 October 2024)
Election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 71%, RENAMO 23%, MDM 4%; seats by party - FRELIMO 184, RENAMO 60, MDM 6; composition as of July 2022 - men 144, women 106, percent of women 42.4%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary Magistracy is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic; vice president appointed by the president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and ratified by the Assembly of the Republic; other judges elected by the Assembly; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the Assembly, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
Subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [vacant]
Liberation Front of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUSI]
Mozambican National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Ossufo MOMADE]

Note: only parties with seats in the legislature listed

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCDF, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNDSS, UNECA, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNODC, UNOPS, UNV, UNWTO, Union Latina, UPU, WCO, WFP, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo Fabaio NUVUNGA (since 19 April 2023)
In the us chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 293-7,147
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Hendrick VROOMAN (since 3 March 2022)
From the us embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, 193, Caixa Postal, 783, Maputo
From the us mailing address: 2,330 Maputo Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,330
From the us telephone: [258] (21) 49-27-97
From the us FAX: [258] (21) 49-01-14
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Mozambique: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
Note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala

National symbols: national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red

National anthem
Name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
Lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
Note: adopted 2002

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Island of Mozambique

Mozambique - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: low-income East African economy; mostly rural labor force; natural resource rich; strong South African ties; Islamist terrorism in north endangers newly discovered natural gas; currently in court over massive (possibly unauthorized) debt

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$39.351 billion (2021 est.)
$38.442 billion (2020 est.)
$38.923 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
2.36% (2021 est.)
-1.23% (2020 est.)
2.31% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 69.7% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 27.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 13.9% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 38.3% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -70.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 23.9% (2017 est.)
Industry: 19.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 56.8% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: -0.42% (2019 est.)

Labor force: 14.137 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.98% (2021 est.)
3.81% (2020 est.)
3.47% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 8.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 8.1%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.2%

Population below poverty line: 46.1% (2014 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 54 (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.9%
Highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $4.569 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $4.591 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -5.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
102.88% of GDP (2020 est.)
79.51% of GDP (2019 est.)
82.3% of GDP (2018 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 21.84% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 6.46% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 4.17% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$3.601 billion (2021 est.)
-$3.869 billion (2020 est.)
-$2.934 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.69% (2021 est.)
3.14% (2020 est.)
2.78% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$3.601 billion (2021 est.)
-$3.869 billion (2020 est.)
-$2.934 billion (2019 est.)

$6.404 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.37 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.6 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: South Africa 16%, India 13%, China 12%, Italy 7%, United Arab Emirates 5%, Germany 5% (2019)
Commodities: coal, aluminum, gold, natural gas, electricity, titanium, coke (2021)

$10.392 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$8.63 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$9.503 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: South Africa 31%, India 18%, China 17% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, chromium, iron, bauxite, electricity (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$67.51 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$47.597 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$20.664 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$10.91 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$10.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 65.465 (2021 est.)
69.465 (2020 est.)
62.548 (2019 est.)
60.326 (2018 est.)
63.584 (2017 est.)

Mozambique - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 19 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 31.4% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 77.3% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 3.8% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 12,724,100,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 10.771 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 8.276 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 2.765 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 19.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 79.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 35,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 25,130 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 5,423,828,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 1,397,604,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 4,067,255,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 2,831,680,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 7.753 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 109,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 4.743 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 2.901 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 8.107 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Mozambique - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 29,080 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 13,686,234 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)

Internet country code: .mz

Internet users
Total: 5.44 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 17% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 70,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.2 (2020 est.)

Mozambique - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Armed Forces for the Defense of Mozambique (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army (Ramo do Exercito), Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM)

Ministry of Interior: Mozambique National Police (PRM), the National Criminal Investigation Service (SERNIC), Rapid Intervention Unit (UIR; police special forces), Border Security Force; other security forces include the Presidential Guard and the Force for the Protection of High-Level Individuals (2023)

Note 1: the FADM and other security forces are referred to collectively as the Defense and Security Forces (DFS)
Note 2:
the PRM, SERNIC, and the UIR are responsible for law enforcement and internal security; the Border Security Force is responsible for protecting the country’s international borders and for carrying out police duties within 24 miles of borders
note 3: the Presidential Guard provides security for the president, and the Force for the Protection of High-level Individuals provides security for senior-level officials at the national and provincial levels

Military service age and obligation: registration for military service is mandatory for all men and women at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service for men and women; 24-month service obligation (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - Mozambique (ISIS-M)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Mozambique - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 540,124 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4.78 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: C9

Airports: 98 (2021)
With paved runways: 21
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 77
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 21
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 77
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


Pipelines: 972 km gas, 278 km refined products (2013)

Total: 4,787 km (2014)
Narrow gauge: 4,787 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge

Total: 31,083 km (2015)
Paved: 7,365 km (2015)
Unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)

Waterways: 460 km (2010) (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake)

Merchant marine
Total: 30 (2022)
By type: general cargo 9, other 21

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Beira, Maputo, Nacala
Lng terminals export: Coral Sul (FLNG)

Mozambique - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalMozambique-Eswatini: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 12,810 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 10,655 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2023)
IDPs: 850,599 (north Mozambique, violence between the government and an opposition group, violence associated with extremists groups in 2018, political violence 2019) (2023)

Illicit drugs:

a transit country for large shipments of heroin and methamphetamine originating from Afghanistan to primarily South Africa


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