Statistical information Namibia 2023Namibia

Map of Namibia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Namibia in the World
Namibia in the World


Namibia - Introduction 2023
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Background: Various ethnic groups occupied southwestern Africa prior to Germany establishing a colony over most of the territory in 1884. South Africa occupied the colony, then known as German South West Africa, in 1915 during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia gained independence in 1990 and has been governed by SWAPO since, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. President Hage GEINGOB was elected in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections. In 2019 elections, GEINGOB was reelected but by a substantially reduced majority and SWAPO narrowly lost its super majority in parliament. 

Namibia - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 824,292 km²
Land: 823,290 km²
Water: 1,002 km²
Comparative: almost seven times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 4,220 km
Border countries: (4) Angola 1,427 km; Botswana 1,544 km; South Africa 1,005 km; Zambia 244 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east

Highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 1,141 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish; note - suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 47.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 46.2% (2018 est.)
Forest: 8.8% (2018 est.)
Other: 44% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 80 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s]), Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Orange river mouth (shared with Lesotho [s], and South Africa) - 2,092 km; Okavango (shared with Angola [s], and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: Orange (941,351 km²)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 km²)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Okavango Basin (863,866 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 70 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 201 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 39.91 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought

Note: the Namib Desert, after which the country is named, is considered to be the oldest desert in the world; Namibia is the first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip; Namib-Naukluft National Park (49,768 km²), is the largest game park in Africa and one of the largest in the world

Namibia - People 2023
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Distribution: population density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola as shown in this [link]: 2,777,232 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.66% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.4% (2015 est.)

Noun: Namibian(s)
Adjective: Namibian

Ethnic groups: Ovambo 50%, Kavangos 9%, Herero 7%, Damara 7%, mixed European and African ancestry 6.5%, European 6%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, San 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

Languages: Oshiwambo languages 49.7%, Nama/Damara 11%, Kavango languages 10.4%, Afrikaans 9.4% (also a common language), Herero languages 9.2%, Zambezi languages 4.9%, English (official) 2.3%, other African languages 1.5%, other European languages 0.7%, other 1% (2016 est.)
Note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 European languages

Religions: Christian 97.5%, other 0.6% (includes Muslim, Baha'i, Jewish, Buddhist), unaffiliated 1.9% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile: Planning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades - from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 and to 3 in 2022 - due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 34.38% (male 482,432/female 472,474)
15-64 years: 61.68% (male 834,001/female 878,865)
65 years and over: 3.94% (2023 est.) (male 46,235/female 63,225)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 67.3
Youth dependency ratio: 60.6
Elderly dependency ratio: 6.7
Potential support ratio: 14.8 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 22.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 21.8 years
Female: 23.2 years

Population growth rate: 1.66% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 24.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population density is very low, with the largest clustering found in the extreme north-central area along the border with Angola as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 54.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 477,000 WINDHOEK (capital) (2023)

Current issues: depletion and degradation of water and aquatic resources; desertification; land degradation; loss of biodiversity and biotic resources; wildlife poaching
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 11.81 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 4.23 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 10.4 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 21.6 years (2013 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 215 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 28.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 25.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 62.1 years
Female: 65.4 years

Total fertility rate: 2.94 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 56.1% (2013)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.9% of population
Improved rural: 83.2% of population
Improved total: 91.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.1% of population
Unimproved rural: 16.8% of population
Unimproved total: 8.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 8.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.59 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 2.7 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
70.6% of population

rural: 23.6% of population

total: 48.1% of population

Unimproved urban:
29.4% of population

rural: 76.4% of population

total: 51.9% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 17.2% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 2.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.53 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.32 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 15.1% (2020 est.)
Male: 24.2% (2020 est.)
Female: 6% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13.2% (2013)

Education expenditures: 9.6% of GDP (2021 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 92.3%
Male: 90.6%
Female: 92.3% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 40.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 39.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 41.7%

Namibia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
Conventional short form: Namibia
Local long form: Republic of Namibia
Local short form: Namibia
Former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Suedwestafrika), South-West Africa
Etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name "namib" means "vast place" in the Nama/Damara language

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Windhoek
Geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Etymology: may derive from the Afrikaans word "wind-hoek" meaning "windy corner"

Administrative divisions: 14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language

Dependent areas

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

History: adopted 9 February 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990
Amendments: passage requires majority vote of the National Assembly membership and of the National Council of Parliament and assent of the president of the republic; if the National Council fails to pass an amendment, the president can call for a referendum; passage by referendum requires two-thirds majority of votes cast; amendments that detract from or repeal constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended, and the requisite majorities needed by Parliament to amend the constitution cannot be changed; amended 1998, 2010, 2014

Legal system: mixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Vice President Nangolo MBUMBA (since 8 February 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Vice President Nangolo MBUMBA (since 8 February 2018); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024)
Election results: 2019: Hage GEINGOB reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 56.3%, Panduleni ITULA (independent) 29.4%, McHenry VENAANI (PDM) 5.3%, other .9% 2014: Hage GEINGOB elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1%, other 2%

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of:
National Council (42 seats); members indirectly elected 3 each by the 14 regional councils to serve 5-year terms); note - the Council primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly
National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed list, proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president)

National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 25 November 2020 (next to be held on 25 November 2,025)
National Assembly - last held on 27 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

Election results:
National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 28, LPM 6,IPC 2, PDM 2, UDF 2, NUDO 1, independent 1; composition as of July 2022 - men 36, women 6, percent of women 14.3%

National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 65.5%, PDM 16.6%, LPM 4.7%, NUDO 1.9%, APP 1.8%, UDF 1.8%, RP 1.8%, NEFF 1.7%, RDP 1.1%, CDV .7%, SWANU .6%, other 1.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 63, PDM 16, LPM 4, NUDO 2, APP 2, UDF 2, RP 2, NEFF 2, RDP 1, CDV 1, SWANU 1; composition as of July 2022 - men 58, women 46, percent of women 44.2%; note - overall percent of women in Parliament 35.6%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions)
Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65, but terms can be extended by the president until age 70
Subordinate courts: High Court; Electoral Court, Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts

Political parties and leaders:
All People's Party or APP (Erastus SHUUMBWA)
Christian Democratic Voice or CDV [Gothard KANDUME]
Landless People's Movement or LPM [Bernadus SWARTBOOI]
National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Esther MUINJANGUE]
Namibian Economic Freedom Fighters or NEFF [Epafras MUKWIILONGO]
Popular Democratic Movement or PDM [McHenry VENAANI] (formerly Democratic Turnhalle Alliance or DTA) 
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mike KAVEKOTORA]
Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Charles KATJIVIRUE]
South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Apius AUCHAB]
United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret Natalie MENSAH-WILLIAMS (since 18 January 2021)
In the us chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Randy William BERRY (since 9 February 2023)
From the us embassy: 38 Metje Street, Klein Windhoek, Windhoek
From the us mailing address: 2,540 Windhoek Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,540
From the us telephone: [264] (061) 295-8,500
From the us FAX: [264] (061) 202-5,219
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Namibia: a wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a golden-yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green; red signifies the heroism of the people and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all; white stands for peace, unity, tranquility, and harmony; blue represents the Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain; the golden-yellow sun denotes power and existence; green symbolizes vegetation and agricultural resources

National symbols: oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow

National anthem
Name: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"
Lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB
Note: adopted 1991

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 2 (1 cultural, 1 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Twyfelfontein or /Ui-//aes (c); Namib Sand Sea (n)

Namibia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income, export-driven Sub-Saharan economy; natural resource rich; Walvis Bay port expansion for trade; high potential for renewable power generation and energy independence; major nature-based tourist locale; natural resource rich; shortage of skilled labor

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$23.12 billion (2021 est.)
$22.522 billion (2020 est.)
$24.49 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
2.66% (2021 est.)
-8.04% (2020 est.)
-0.84% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 24.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 16% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 36.7% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -47.5% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 6.7% (2016 est.)
Industry: 26.3% (2016 est.)
Services: 67% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: mining, tourism, fishing, agriculture

Industrial production growth rate: 1.44% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 939,000 (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
21.68% (2021 est.)
21.45% (2020 est.)
19.99% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 40.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 39.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 41.7%

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (2015 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 59.1 (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.4%
Highest 10%: 42% (2010)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $4.004 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $4.693 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -5.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
4.64% of GDP (2019 est.)
5.49% of GDP (2018 est.)
5.44% of GDP (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 31.17% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0.47% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance:
-$1.21 billion (2021 est.)
$270.277 million (2020 est.)
-$222.969 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
3.62% (2021 est.)
2.21% (2020 est.)
3.72% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$1.21 billion (2021 est.)
$270.277 million (2020 est.)
-$222.969 million (2019 est.)

$3.955 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.565 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.581 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 29%, South Africa 20%, Botswana 8%, Belgium 6%, Zambia 4% (2020)
Commodities: diamonds, uranium, copper, gold, fish products, aircraft, ships (2021)

$6.055 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.614 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.808 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: South Africa 40%, Zambia 20%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6%, China 5%, Bulgaria 3% (2020)
Commodities: copper, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, cobalt, cars (2020)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.764 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$2.171 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$2.049 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$7.969 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.904 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Namibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar - 14.779 (2021 est.)
16.463 (2020 est.)
14.449 (2019 est.)
13.234 (2018 est.)
13.313 (2017 est.)

Namibia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 1 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 55.2% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 74.7% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 33.2% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 4,065,360,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 119 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 3.417 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 640,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 6.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 4.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 88.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 26,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 80 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 26,270 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 62.297 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 3.831 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 66,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 3.764 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 29.811 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Namibia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 85,814 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 2,915,307 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available

Internet country code: .na

Internet users
Total: 1.325 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 53% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 71,063 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

Namibia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2022 est.)
3% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
3.3% of GDP (2019 est.)
3.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces: Namibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2023)
Note: the Namibian Police Force is under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Immigration, Safety, and Security; it has a paramilitary Special Field Force responsible for protecting borders and government installations

Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for men and women for voluntary military service; no conscription (2023)
Note: as of 2018, women comprised more than 20% of the active duty military

Terrorist groups

Namibia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 602,893 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 26.29 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: V5

Airports: 112 (2021)
With paved runways: 19
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 93
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 19
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 93
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control



Total: 2,628 km (2014)
Narrow gauge: 2,628 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge

Total: 48,875 km (2018)
Paved: 7,893 km (2018)
Unpaved: 40,982 km (2018)


Merchant marine
Total: 15 (2022)
By type: general cargo 1, other 14

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Namibia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalNamibia-Angola-Botswana: concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 6,247 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2023)

Illicit drugs

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