Statistical information New Zealand 2023New%20Zealand

Map of New Zealand | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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New Zealand - Introduction 2023
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Background:
Polynesian settlers may have arrived in New Zealand in the late 1200s, with widespread settlement in the mid-1300s. They called the land Aotearoa, which legend holds is the name of the canoe that Kupe, the first Polynesian in New Zealand, used to sail to the country; the name Aotearoa is now in widespread use as the local Maori name for the country. Competition for land and resources led to intermittent fighting between different Maori iwi (tribes) by the 1500s as large game became extinct. Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to see the islands in 1642 but after an encounter with local Maori, he sailed away. British captain James COOK was the next European to arrive in New Zealand in 1769, followed by whalers, sealers, and traders. The UK only nominally claimed New Zealand and included it as part of New South Wales in Australia. Concerns about increasing lawlessness led the UK to appoint its first British Resident in New Zealand in 1832, although he had few legal powers. In 1835, some Maori iwi from the North Island declared independence as the United Tribes of New Zealand. Fearing an impending French settlement and takeover, they asked the British for protection. In 1840, the British negotiated their protection in the Treaty of Waitangi, which was eventually signed by more than 500 different Maori chiefs, although many chiefs did not or were not asked to sign. In the English-language version of the treaty, the British thought the Maori ceded their land to the UK, but translations of the treaty appeared to give the British less authority, and land tenure issues stemming from the treaty are still present and being actively negotiated in New Zealand.

The UK declared New Zealand a separate colony in 1841 and gave it limited self-government in 1852. Different traditions of authority and land use led to a series of wars from the 1840s to the 1870s fought between Europeans and various Maori iwi. Along with disease, these conflicts halved the Maori population. In the 1890s, New Zealand initially expressed interest in joining independence talks with Australia but ultimately opted against it and changed its status to an independent dominion in 1907. New Zealand provided more than 100,000 troops during each World War, many of whom fought as part of the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). New Zealand reaffirmed its independence in 1947, signed the Australia, New Zealand, and US (ANZUS) Treaty, and militarily supported the US in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Beginning in 1984, New Zealand began to adopt nuclear-free policies, contributing to a dispute with the US over naval ship visits that led the US to suspend its defense obligations to New Zealand in 1986.

In recent years, New Zealand has explored reducing some of its ties to the UK. There in an active, minority movement about changing New Zealand to a republic, and in 2015-16, a referendum on changing the New Zealand flag to remove the Union Jack failed 57% to 43%.



New Zealand - Geography 2023
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Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map referenceOceania

Area
Total: 268,838 km²
Land: 264,537 km²
Water: 4,301 km²
Note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Comparative: almost twice the size of North Carolina; about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with large coastal plains

Elevation
Highest point: Aoraki/Mount Cook 3,724 m; note - the mountain's height was 3,764 m until 14 December 1991 when it lost about 10 m in an avalanche of rock and ice; erosion of the ice cap since then has brought the height down another 30 m
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 388 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 43.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 1.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 41.1% (2018 est.)
Forest: 31.4% (2018 est.)
Other: 25.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,000 km² (2014)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 500 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.18 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 3.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 327 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity

Geography
Note note 1: consists of two main islands and a number of smaller islands; South Island, the larger main island, is the 12th largest island in the world and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps; North Island is the 14th largest island in the world and is not as mountainous, but it is marked by volcanism
Note note 2: New Zealand lies along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
Note note 3: almost 90% of the population lives in cities and over three-quarters on North Island; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world


New Zealand - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: over three-quarters of New Zealanders, including the indigenous Maori, live on the North Island, primarily in urban areas: 5,109,702 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.06% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: NA

Nationality
Noun: New Zealander(s)
Adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: European 64.1%, Maori 16.5%, Chinese 4.9%, Indian 4.7%, Samoan 3.9%, Tongan 1.8%, Cook Islands Maori 1.7%, English 1.5%, Filipino 1.5%, New Zealander 1%, other 13.7% (2018 est.)
Note: based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group

Languages: English (de facto official) 95.4%, Maori (de jure official) 4%, Samoan 2.2%, Northern Chinese 2%, Hindi 1.5%, French 1.2%, Yue 1.1%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official) 0.5%, other or not stated 17.2% (2018 est.)
Note: shares sum to 124.1% due to multiple responses on the 2018 census

Religions: Christian 37.3% (Catholic 10.1%, Anglican 6.8%, Presbyterian and Congregational 5.2%, Pentecostal 1.8%, Methodist 1.6%, Church of Jesus Christ 1.2%, other 10.7%), Hindu 2.7%, Maori 1.3%, Muslim, 1.3%, Buddhist 1.1%, other religion 1.6% (includes Judaism, Spiritualism and New Age religions, Baha'i, Asian religions other than Buddhism), no religion 48.6%, objected to answering 6.7% (2018 est.)
Note: based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one religion

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19.15% (male 503,190/female 475,527)
15-64 years: 64.36% (male 1,661,312/female 1,627,304)
65 years and over: 16.49% (2023 est.) (male 394,339/female 448,030)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.4
Youth dependency ratio: 29
Elderly dependency ratio: 24.4
Potential support ratio: 4.1 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 37.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 36.9 years
Female: 38.4 years

Population growth rate: 1.06% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 12.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: over three-quarters of New Zealanders, including the indigenous Maori, live on the North Island, primarily in urban areas

Urbanization
Urban population: 87% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.673 million Auckland, 422,000 WELLINGTON (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: water quality and availability; rapid urbanization; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 8.61 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 34.38 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 34.3 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 27.8 years

Maternal mortality ratio: 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 82.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 81 years
Female: 84.6 years

Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 79.9% (2014/15)
Note: percent of women aged 16-49

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 10% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2019)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 30.8% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 9.17 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.41 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 2.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 13.7% (2020 est.)
Male: 15% (2020 est.)
Female: 12.3% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 20 years
Male: 20 years
Female: 21 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 11.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 12.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 10.6%


New Zealand - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: New Zealand
Abbreviation: NZ
Etymology: Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to reach New Zealand in 1642; he named it Staten Landt, but Dutch cartographers renamed it Nova Zeelandia in 1645 after the Dutch province of Zeeland; British explorer Captain James COOK subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand when he mapped the islands in 1769

Government type: parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital
Name: Wellington
Geographic coordinates: 41 18 S, 174 47 E
Time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Time zone note: New Zealand has two time zones: New Zealand standard time (UTC+12) and Chatham Islands time (45 minutes in advance of New Zealand standard time; UTC+12:45)
Etymology: named in 1840 after Arthur WELLESLEY, the first Duke of Wellington and victorious general at the Battle of Waterloo

Administrative divisions: 16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast

Dependent areas: (1) Tokelau (1)

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from the UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); Anzac Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)

Constitution
History: New Zealand has no single constitution document; the Constitution Act 1986, effective 1 January 1987, includes only part of the uncodified constitution; others include a collection of statutes or "acts of Parliament," the Treaty of Waitangi, Orders in Council, letters patent, court decisions, and unwritten conventions
Amendments: proposed as bill by Parliament or by referendum called either by the government or by citizens; passage of a bill as an act normally requires two separate readings with committee reviews in between to make changes and corrections, a third reading approved by the House of Representatives membership or by the majority of votes in a referendum, and assent of the governor-general; passage of amendments to reserved constitutional provisions affecting the term of Parliament, electoral districts, and voting restrictions requires approval by 75% of the House membership or the majority of votes in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system: common law system, based on English model, with special legislation and land courts for the Maori

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of New Zealand
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General Dame Cindy KIRO (since 21 October 2021)
Head of government: Prime Minister Christopher LUXON (since 27 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Winston PETERS (since 27 November 2023)
Cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor-general on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor-general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor-general
Election results: LUXON's National Party won the 2023 general selection with 38% of the vote and 48 total seats in parliament; his coalition government includes the ACT New Zealand party (8.6% and 11 seats) and the New Zealand First Party (6.1% and 8 seats)
Note: according to Prime Minister LUXON, the Winston PETERS of the New Zealand First Party would be the deputy prime minister in the first half of the term while Act party leader, David SEYMOUR, would take the role for the second half of the term

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (121 seats for 2023-26 term); 72 members directly elected in 65 single-seat constituencies and 7 Maori constituencies by simple majority vote and 49 directly elected by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
Elections: last held on 14 October 2023 (next scheduled for October 2,026)
Election results: percent of vote by party - National Party 38.1%, Labor Party 26.9%, Green Party 11.6%, ACT Party 8.6%, New Zealand First 6.1%; Maori Party 3.1%; seats by party - National Party 48, Labor Party 34, Green Party 15, ACT Party 11, New Zealand First 8, Maori Party 6; composition - 67 men, 56 women; percentage of women 45.5%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices, including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court in 2004 replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) as the final appeals court
Judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor-general upon the recommendation of the attorney- general; justices appointed until compulsory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; tribunals and authorities; district courts; specialized courts for issues related to employment, environment, family, Maori lands, youth, military; tribunals

Political parties and leaders:
ACT New Zealand [David SEYMOUR]
Green Party [Marama DAVIDSON and James SHAW]
New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]
New Zealand Labor Party [Chris HIPKINS]
New Zealand National Party [Christopher LUXON]
Te Pāti Māori [Debbie NGAREWA-PACKER and Rawiri WAITITI]

Note: in the October 2023 general election, 11 additional parties won votes but no seats in Parliament

International organization participation: ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF, SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Bede Gilbert CORRY (since 16 September 2022)
In the us chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 328-4,800
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 667-5,277
In the us email address and website:
wshinfo@mfat.govt.nz

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Stewart UDALL (since 1 December 2021) note - also accredited to Samoa
From the us embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington 6,011
From the us mailing address: 4,370 Auckland Place, Washington DC 20,521-4,370
From the us telephone: [64] (4) 462-6,000
From the us FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
From the us email address and website:
AucklandACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of New%20Zealand: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

National symbols: Southern Cross constellation (four, five-pointed stars), kiwi (bird), silver fern; national colors: black, white, red (ochre)

National anthem
Name: "God Defend New Zealand"
Lyrics/music: Thomas BRACKEN [English], Thomas Henry SMITH [Maori]/John Joseph WOODS
Note: adopted 1940 as national song, adopted 1977 as co-national anthem; New Zealand has two national anthems with equal status; as a commonwealth realm, in addition to "God Defend New Zealand," "God Save the King" serves as a royal anthem (see United Kingdom); "God Save the King" normally played only when a member of the royal family or the governor-general is present; in all other cases, "God Defend New Zealand" is played

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 3 (2 natural, 1 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


New Zealand - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income Pacific island economy; strong agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, and energy sectors; reliant on Chinese market for exports; sustained growth; low unemployment; high living standards; sharp growth post COVID-19 lockdown

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$219.839 billion (2021 est.)
$211.966 billion (2020 est.)
$214.655 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
3.71% (2021 est.)
-1.25% (2020 est.)
2.19% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 57.2% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 5.7% (2017 est.)
Industry: 21.5% (2017 est.)
Services: 72.8% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: agriculture, forestry, fishing, logs and wood articles, manufacturing, mining, construction, financial services, real estate services, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: -2.09% (2020 est.)

Labor force: 2.911 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.12% (2021 est.)
4.59% (2020 est.)
4.11% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 11.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 12.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 10.6%

Population below poverty line: NA

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 36.2 (1997)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $76.694 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $88.593 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: 1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
46.33% of GDP (2020 est.)
32.7% of GDP (2019 est.)
36.61% of GDP (2018 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 27.5% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.5% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes

Current account balance:
-$14.827 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.014 billion (2020 est.)
-$5.945 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
3.94% (2021 est.)
1.71% (2020 est.)
1.62% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$14.827 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.014 billion (2020 est.)
-$5.945 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$54.777 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$50.544 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$57.875 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 33%, Australia 12%, United States 11%, Japan 6%, South Korea 3% (2021)
Commodities: milk cream powders, lumber, beef, butter, mutton (2021)

Imports:
$62.862 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$48.104 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$57.682 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 22%, Australia 15%, United States 7%, Japan 6%, Thailand 5% (2021)
Commodities: cars, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, delivery trucks, broadcasting equipment, gas turbines (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$16.114 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$13.733 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$17.814 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$190.621 billion (2019 est.)
$192.327 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar - 1.414 (2021 est.)
1.542 (2020 est.)
1.518 (2019 est.)
1.445 (2018 est.)
1.407 (2017 est.)



New Zealand - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 41,169,838,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 9.615 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 19.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 5.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 54.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 18.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 13,400 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 184,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 21,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 99,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 41 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 115,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 1,782 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 56,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 4,771,126,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 4,946,237,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 31.148 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 40.344 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 5.139 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 25.76 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 9.445 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 186.804 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


New Zealand - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 757,000 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 5.846 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 114 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-owned Television New Zealand operates multiple TV networks and state-owned Radio New Zealand operates 3 radio networks and an external shortwave radio service to the South Pacific region; a small number of national commercial TV and radio stations and many regional commercial television and radio stations are available; cable and satellite TV systems are available, as are a range of streaming services (2019)

Internet country code: .nz

Internet users
Total: 4.896 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 96% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 1,764,984 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)


New Zealand - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.5% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)
1.2% of GDP (2018)


Military and security forces: New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2023)
Note: the New Zealand Police, under the Minister of Police, are responsible for internal security

Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription (2023)
Note 1: New Zealand opened up all military occupations to women in 2000; in 2022, women accounted for about 20% of armed forces personnel
Note 2: as of 2022, the NZDF’s program for recruiting foreign volunteers had been suspended

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in New Zealand - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 15 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 199
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,249,049 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,349,300,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: ZK

Airports: 123 (2021)
With paved runways: 39
With paved runways civil airports: 15
With paved runways military airports: 2
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 1
With paved runways other airports: 21
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 84
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 39
Civil airports: 15
Military airports: 2
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 1
Other airports: 21
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 84
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines: 331 km condensate, 2,500 km gas, 172 km liquid petroleum gas, 288 km oil, 198 km refined products (2018)

Railways
Total: 4,128 km (2018)
Narrow gauge: 4,128 km (2018) 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified)

Roadways
Total: 94,000 km (2017)
Paved: 61,600 km (2017) (includes 199 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 32,400 km (2017)

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 116 (2022)
By type: container ship 1, general cargo 12, oil tanker 5, other 98

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Auckland, Lyttelton, Manukau Harbor, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington


New Zealand - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalNew Zealand-Antarctica: asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Stateless persons: 5 (2022)

Illicit drugs: significant consumer of amphetamines


World Nomads


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