Statistical information Nigeria 2023Nigeria

Map of Nigeria | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Nigeria in the World
Nigeria in the World

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Nigeria - Introduction 2023
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Background: In ancient and pre-colonial times, the area of present-day Nigeria was occupied by a great diversity of ethnic groups with different languages and traditions. These included large Islamic kingdoms such as Borno, Kano, and the Sokoto Caliphate dominating the north, the Benin and Oyo Empires that controlled much of modern western Nigeria, and more decentralized political entities and city states in the south and southeast. In 1914, the British amalgamated their separately administered northern and southern territories into a Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Nigeria achieved independence in 1960 and transitioned to a federal republic with three constituent states in 1963 under President Nnamdi AZIKIWE. This structure served to enflame regional and ethnic tension, contributing to a bloody coup led by predominately southeastern military officers in 1966 and a countercoup later that year masterminded by northern officers. In the aftermath of this tension, the governor of Nigeria’s Eastern Region, centered on the southeast, declared the region independent as the Republic of Biafra. The ensuring civil war (1967-1970), resulted in more than a million deaths, many from starvation. While the war forged a stronger Nigerian state and national identity, it contributed to long-lasting mistrust of the southeast’s predominantly Igbo population. Wartime military leader Yakubu GOWON ruled until a bloodless coup by frustrated junior officers in 1975. This generation of officers, including Olusegun OBASANJO, Ibrahim BABANGIDA, and Muhammadu BUHARI, continue to exert significant influence in Nigeria to the present day. Military rule predominated until the first durable transition to civilian government in 1999. The general elections of 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history. National and state elections in 2011 and 2015 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election was also heralded for the fact that the then-umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeated the long-ruling (since 1999) People's Democratic Party, and assumed the presidency, marking the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another. Presidential and legislative elections in 2019 and 2023 were deemed broadly free and fair despite voting irregularities, intimidation, and violence. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through decades of corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria faces increasing violence from Islamic terrorism, largely in the northeast, large scale criminal banditry focused in the northwest, secessionist violence in the southeast, and competition over land and resources nationwide.


Nigeria - Geography 2023
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Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 923,768 km²
Land: 910,768 km²
Water: 13,000 km²
Comparative: about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total: 4,477 km
Border countries: (4) Benin 809 km; Cameroon 1,975 km; Chad 85 km; Niger 1,608 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation
Highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 380 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 78% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 37.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 7.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 33.3% (2018 est.)
Forest: 9.5% (2018 est.)
Other: 12.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,930 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Niger river mouth (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, Benin, and Niger) - 4,200 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 km²)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 km²)


Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.97 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 5.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 286.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; flooding

Geography
Note: the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea


Nigeria - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this [link]: 230,842,743 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 2.53% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 40.1% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Nigerian(s)
Adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups: Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.9% (2018 est.)
Note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Religions: Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other 0.6% (2018 est.)

Demographic profile: Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2,050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 40.69% (male 47,978,838/female 45,940,446)
15-64 years: 55.95% (male 64,923,147/female 64,241,948)
65 years and over: 3.36% (2023 est.) (male 3,635,334/female 4,123,030)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 86
Youth dependency ratio: 80.6
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
Potential support ratio: 18 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 19.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 18.9 years
Female: 19.4 years

Population growth rate: 2.53% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this [link]

Urbanization
Urban population: 54.3% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 3.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 15.946 million Lagos, 4.348 million Kano, 3.875 million Ibadan, 3.840 million ABUJA (capital), 3.480 million Port Harcourt, 1.905 million Benin City (2023)

Environment
Current issues: serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Tropical Timber 2006

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 55.64 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 120.37 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 143.99 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 20.4 years (2018 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 1,047 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 61.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 59.9 years
Female: 63.8 years

Total fertility rate: 4.57 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 16.6% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 95.3% of population
Improved rural: 68.8% of population
Improved total: 82.6% of population
Unimproved urban: 4.7% of population
Unimproved rural: 31.2% of population
Unimproved total: 17.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 3.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
81.6% of population

rural: 41.4% of population

total: 62.3% of population

Unimproved urban:
18.4% of population

rural: 58.6% of population

total: 37.7% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
Aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever
Note 1: on 4 May 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in multiple states (Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, and Enugu); the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak (see attached map)
Note 2: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Nigeria is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine
Note 3: on 20 September 2023, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated a Travel Health Alert for a diphtheria outbreak in several states in Nigeria; vaccination against diphtheria is essential to protect against disease; if you are traveling to an affected area, you should be up to date with your diphtheria vaccines; before travel, discuss the need for a booster dose with your healthcare professional; diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria that make a toxin from which people get very sick; diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person through respiratory droplets like from coughing or sneezing; people can also get sick from touching open sores or ulcers of people sick with diphtheria (see attached map)

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 8.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 4.49 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 3.27 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 3.7% (2020 est.)
Male: 6.9% (2020 est.)
Female: 0.5% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 18.4% (2019/20)

Education expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (2013)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 62%
Male: 71.3%
Female: 52.7% (2018)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 19.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.8% NA
Rate ages 15 24 female: 19.4% NA


Nigeria - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Conventional short form: Nigeria
Etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"

Government type: federal presidential republic

Capital
Name: Abuja
Geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: Abuja is a planned capital city, it replaced Lagos in 1991; situated in the center of the country, Abuja takes its name from a nearby town, now renamed Suleja

Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from the UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999
Amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority vote by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
Head of government: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023)
Cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held on 27 February 2,027)
Election results:
2023: Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU elected president; percent of vote - Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (APC) 36.6%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 29.1%, Peter OBI (LP) 25.4%, Rabiu KWANKWASO (NNPP) 6.4%, other 2.5%

2019: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 39%, other 8%  


Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives (360 seats statutory, 258 current; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

Elections:
Senate - last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held on 25 February 2,027)
House of Representatives - last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held on 25 February 2,027)  


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system

Political parties and leaders:
Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
Africa Democratic Congress or ADC [Ralph Okey NWOSU] 
All Progressives Congress or APC [Abdullahi ADAMU]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor Ike OYE]
Labor Party or LP [Julius ABURE]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Iyourchia AYU]
Young Progressive Party or YPP [Bishop AMAKIRI]


International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, ATMIS, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LCBC, MIGA, MINURSO, MNJTF, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Uzoma Elizabeth EMENIKE (since 7 July 2021)
In the us chancery: 3,519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 800-7,201 (ext. 100)
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 362-6,541
In the us email address and website:
info@nigeriaembassyusa.org

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David GREENE (since 31 March 2023)
From the us embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
From the us mailing address: 8,320 Abuja Place, Washington DC 20,521-8,320
From the us telephone: [234] (9) 461-4,000
From the us FAX: [234] (9) 461-4,036
From the us email address and website:
AbujaACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Nigeria: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity

National symbols: eagle; national colors: green, white

National anthem
Name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
Lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B.A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P.O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
Note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Sukur Cultural Landscape; Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove


Nigeria - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: largest African market economy; enormous but mostly lower middle income labor force; major oil exporter; key telecommunications and finance industries; susceptible to energy prices; regional leader in critical infrastructure; primarily agrarian employment

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.05 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.014 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.032 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
3.65% (2021 est.)
-1.79% (2020 est.)
2.21% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 80% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 11.9% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -13.2% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 21.1% (2016 est.)
Industry: 22.5% (2016 est.)
Services: 56.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -0.47% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 65.116 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
9.79% (2021 est.)
9.71% (2020 est.)
8.53% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 19.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.8% NA
Rate ages 15 24 female: 19.4% NA

Population below poverty line: 40.1% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 35.1 (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.8%
Highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $37.298 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $59.868 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
21.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 1.02% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$1.849 billion (2021 est.)
-$15.986 billion (2020 est.)
-$13.685 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
16.95% (2021 est.)
13.25% (2020 est.)
11.4% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$1.849 billion (2021 est.)
-$15.986 billion (2020 est.)
-$13.685 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$50.856 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$39.937 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$69.927 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: India 16%, Spain 12%, United States 6%, France 6%, China 5% (2021)
Commodities: crude petroleum, natural gas, scrap vessels, cocoa beans, refined petroleum (2021)

Imports:
$66.107 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$72.178 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$100.82 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 30%, Netherlands 11%, United States 6%, Belgium 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, cars, wheat, laboratory glassware, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$36.73 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$38.336 billion (31 December 2019 est.)
$42.839 billion (31 December 2018 est.)


Debt external:
$26.847 billion (2019 est.)
$22.755 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 358.811 (2020 est.)
306.921 (2019 est.)
306.084 (2018 est.)
305.79 (2017 est.)
253.492 (2016 est.)



Nigeria - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 66 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 59.6% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 89.2% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 26.3% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 24,611,480,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 11.691 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 78.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 21.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 1,646,900 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 483,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,889,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 36.89 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 35,010 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 2,332 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 223,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 46,296,835,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 18,787,602,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 27,509,177,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 5,760,883,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 104.494 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 231,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 67.406 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 36.856 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 8.466 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Nigeria - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 96,996 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 195,128,265 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available; digital broadcasting migration process completed in three states in 2018 (2019)

Internet country code: .ng

Internet users
Total: 115.5 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 55% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 65,313 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.03 (2020 est.)


Nigeria - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
0.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2018 est.)


Military and security forces:
Armed Forces of Nigeria (AFN): Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard), Air Force

Ministry of Interior: Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corps (NSCDC), Nigeria Police Force (NPF) (2023)

Note 1: the NSCDC is a paramilitary agency commissioned to assist the military in the management of threats to internal security, including attacks and natural disasters
Note 2: the Office of the National Security Advisor is responsible for coordinating all security and enforcement agencies, including the Department of State Security (DSS), the NSCDC, the Ministry of Justice, and the NPF; border security responsibilities are shared among the NPF, the DSS, the NSCDC, Customs, Immigration, and the Nigerian military
Note 3: some states have created local security forces in response to increased violence, insecurity, and criminality that have exceeded the response capacity of government security forces

Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Boko Haram; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - West Africa; Jama’atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan (Ansaru)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Nigeria - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 13 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 104
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,169,192 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 19.42 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 5N

Airports: 54 (2021)
With paved runways: 40
With paved runways civil airports: 8
With paved runways military airports: 0
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 3
With paved runways other airports: 29
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 14
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 40
Civil airports: 8
Military airports: 0
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 3
Other airports: 29
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 14
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 5 (2021)

Pipelines: 124 km condensate, 4,045 km gas, 164 km liquid petroleum gas, 4,441 km oil, 3,940 km refined products (2013)

Railways
Total: 3,798 km (2014)
Standard gauge: 293 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge: 3,505 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge
Note: as of the end of 2018, there were only six operational locomotives in Nigeria primarily used for passenger service; the majority of the rail lines are in a severe state of disrepair and need to be replaced

Roadways
Total: 195,000 km (2017)
Paved: 60,000 km (2017)
Unpaved: 135,000 km (2017)

Waterways: 8,600 km (2011) (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks)

Merchant marine
Total: 832 (2022)
By type: general cargo 16, oil tanker 111, other 705

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
Oil terminals: Bonny Terminal, Brass Terminal, Escravos Terminal, Forcados Terminal, Pennington Terminal, Qua Iboe Terminal
Lng terminals export: Bonny Island


Nigeria - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalNigeria-Benin: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 89,045 (Cameroon) (2023)
IDPs: 3.15 million (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2023)

Illicit drugs: Nigeria is a major hub for transnational drug trafficking networks entrenched throughout the world and supplying cocaine to Asia and Europe, heroin to Europe and North America, and methamphetamine to South Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand; also exporting massive quantities of opioids such as tramadol and captagon along with crack cocaine; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


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