Statistical information Pakistan 2023Pakistan

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Pakistan in the World
Pakistan in the World


Pakistan - Introduction 2023
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Background: The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India created lasting tension between the two countries, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India assisted an indigenous movement reacting to the marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.

Pakistan - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 796,095 km²
Land: 770,875 km²
Water: 25,220 km²
Comparative: slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total: 7,257 km
Border countries: (4) Afghanistan 2,670 km; China 438 km; India 3,190 km; Iran 959 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain: divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west

Highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
Mean elevation: 900 m

Natural resources: arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 35.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 27.6% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 6.5% (2018 est.)
Forest: 2.1% (2018 est.)
Other: 62.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 193,400 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Indus river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 3,610 km; Sutlej river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 1,372 km; Chenab river mouth (shared with India [s]) - 1,086 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²:
Indian Ocean drainage: Indus (1,081,718 km²)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Tarim Basin (1,152,448 km²), (Aral Sea basin) Amu Darya (534,739 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 9.65 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 172.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 246.8 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Pakistan - People 2023
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Distribution: the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated: 247,653,551 (2023 est.)
Note: results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,684,626
Growth rate: 1.91% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 24.3% (2015 est.)

Noun: Pakistani(s)
Adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups: Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Saraiki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%

Languages: Punjabi 38.8%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 18.2%, Sindhi 14.6%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 12.2%, Urdu 7.1%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2.4%, Brahui 1.2%, other 2.4%
Major-language samples:
دنیا کا قاموس، ایک لازمی زریہ بنیادی معلومات کا (Urdu)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Note: data represent population by mother tongue; English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries)

Religions: Muslim (official) 96.5% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.5% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 34.81% (male 44,002,871/female 42,216,200)
15-64 years: 60.41% (male 76,548,821/female 73,065,518)
65 years and over: 4.77% (2023 est.) (male 5,482,633/female 6,337,508)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 70
Youth dependency ratio: 62.8
Elderly dependency ratio: 7.2
Potential support ratio: 13.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 22.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 22.6 years
Female: 22.8 years

Population growth rate: 1.91% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated

Urban population: 38% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 17.236 million Karachi, 13.979 million Lahore, 3.711 million Faisalabad, 2.415 million Gujranwala, 2.412 million Peshawar, 1.232 million ISLAMABAD (capital) (2023)

Current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution and noise pollution in urban areas
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 50.13 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 201.15 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 142.12 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 22.8 years (2017/18 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 154 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 52.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 57.1 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 48.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70 years (2023 est.)
Male: 67.9 years
Female: 72.1 years

Total fertility rate: 3.39 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 34% (2018/19)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 96.5% of population
Improved rural: 92.5% of population
Improved total: 94% of population
Unimproved urban: 3.5% of population
Unimproved rural: 7.5% of population
Unimproved total: 6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 2.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 0.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
88.6% of population

rural: 73.2% of population

total: 78.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
11.4% of population

rural: 26.8% of population

total: 21.1% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: Pakistan is one of two countries with endemic wild polio virus (the other is Afghanistan) and considered high risk for international spread of the disease; before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 8.6% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 20.2% (2020 est.)
Male: 33% (2020 est.)
Female: 7.3% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23.1% (2017/18)

Education expenditures: 2.4% of GDP (2021 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 58%
Male: 69.3%
Female: 46.5% (2019)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 9 years
Male: 9 years
Female: 8 years (2019)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 9.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 9.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.2%

Pakistan - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Conventional short form: Pakistan
Local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
Local short form: Pakistan
Former: West Pakistan
Etymology: the word "pak" means "pure" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure"

Government type: federal parliamentary republic

Name: Islamabad
Geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
Time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: derived from two words: Islam, an Urdu word referring to the religion of Islam, and -abad, a Persian suffix indicating an "inhabited place" or "city," to render the meaning "City of Islam"

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 2 Pakistan-administered areas*, and 1 capital territory**; Azad Kashmir*, Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Sindh

Dependent areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from British India)

National holiday: Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

History: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)
Amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system: common law system with Islamic law influence

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
Dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
Residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Arif ALVI (since 9 September 2018)
Head of government: Interim Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq KAKAR (since 14 August 2023); caretaker cabinet (since 17 August 2023)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 4 September 2018 (next expected to be held in early 2024); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on 11 April 2022
Election results:
2018: Arif ALVI elected president; Electoral College vote - Arif ALVI (PTI) 352, Fazl-ur-REHMAN (MMA) 184, Aitzaz AHSAN (PPP) 124; Imran KHAN elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - Imran KHAN (PTI) 176, Shehbaz SHARIF (PML-N) 96

2013: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; National Assembly vote - Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77

Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of:
Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the federal capital territory indirectly elected by the National Assembly using proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)

Senate - last held on 3 March 2021 (next to be held on 3 March 2024)
National Assembly - last held on 25 July 2018 (next rescheduled from October 2023 to 31 January 2024 to 4 February 2024 due to the redrawing of many electoral district boundaries)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PTI 25, PPP 21, PML-N 18, BAP 13, JUI-F 5, other 13, independent 5; composition - men 81, women 19, percent of women 19%

National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PTI 156, PML-N 83, PPP 55, MMA 16, MQM-P 7, BAP 5, PML-Q 5, BNP-M 4, GDA 3, AML 1, ANP 1, JWP 1, independent 4; composition - men 272, women 70, percent of women 20.2%; note - total Parliament percent of women 20.1%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission, a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals, and appointed by the president; justices can serve until age 65
Subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues, such as taxation, banking, and customs

Political parties and leaders:
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]
Awami Muslim League or AML [Sheikh Rashid AHMED]
Balochistan Awami Party or BAP [Abdul Quddus BIZENJO]
Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israrullah ZEHRI]
Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
Grand Democratic Alliance or GDA [Pir PAGARO] (alliance of several parties)
Hazara Democratic Party or HDP [Abdul Khaliq HAZARA]
Jamaat-e-Islami or JI [Siraj-ul-HAQ]
Jamhoori Wattan Party or JWP [Nawabzada Shahzain BUGTI]
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazl or JUI-F [Maulana Fazal-ur-REHMAN]
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Maulana Fazal-ur-REHMAN] (alliance of several parties)
Muttahida Qaumi Movement-Pakistan or MQM-P [Khalid Maqbool SIDDIQUI]
National Party or NP [Abdul Malik BALOCH]
Pashtoonkhwa Milli Awami Party or PMAP or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Shehbaz SHARIF]
Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-e-Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]
Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]
Pakistan Peoples Party or PPP [Bilawal BHUTTO ZARDARI, Asif Ali ZARDARI]
Pakistan Rah-e-Haq Party or PRHP [Muhammad Ibrahim QASMI]
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI (Pakistan Movement for Justice) [Imran KHAN]
Tehreek-e-Labbaik Pakistan or TLP [Hafiz Muhammad Saad Hussain Rizvi MARKAZI]

Note: Pakistan has several hundred officially registered political parties; this list includes those that won seats in the most recent elections at the national and provincial levels

International organization participation: ADB, AIIB, ARF, ASEAN (sectoral dialogue partner), C, CERN (associate member), CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MINUSCA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOOSA, UNSOS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Sardar Masood KHAN (since 19 April 2022)
In the us chancery: 3,517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 243-6,500
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald BLOME (since 2 July 2022)
From the us embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
From the us mailing address: 8,100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20,521-8,100
From the us telephone: [92] 051-201-4,000
From the us FAX: [92] 51-2,338,071
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Pakistan: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbols: five-pointed star between the horns of a waxing crescent moon, jasmine; national colors: green, white

National anthem
Name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)
Lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
Note: adopted 1954; also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 6 (all cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi; Taxila; Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore; Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta; Rohtas Fort

Pakistan - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: lower middle-income South Asian economy; extremely high debt; endemic corruption; major currency devaluation; major food insecurity and inflation; environmentally fragile agricultural sector; regional disputes with India and Afghanistan hinder investment

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.211 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.137 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.152 trillion (2019 est.)

data are in 2017 dollars
data are for fiscal years

Real gdp growth rate:
6.49% (2021 est.)
-1.27% (2020 est.)
2.5% (2019 est.)

Note: data are for fiscal years

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 82% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 14.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 8.2% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -17.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 24.4% (2016 est.)
Industry: 19.1% (2016 est.)
Services: 56.5% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, surgical instruments, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: 7.81% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 73.133 million (2021 est.)
Note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.35% (2021 est.)
4.3% (2020 est.)
3.54% (2019 est.)

Note: Pakistan has substantial underemployment

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 9.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 9.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.2%

Population below poverty line: 24.3% (2015 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 29.6 (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 4%
Highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $38.966 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $59.621 billion (2020 est.)
Note: data are for fiscal years
Surplus  or deficit: -5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
67% of GDP (2017 est.)
67.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 15.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

From forest resources: 0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance:
-$12.262 billion (2021 est.)
-$650.874 million (2020 est.)
-$8.558 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
9.5% (2021 est.)
9.74% (2020 est.)
10.58% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$12.262 billion (2021 est.)
-$650.874 million (2020 est.)
-$8.558 billion (2019 est.)

$35.566 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$27.333 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$30.67 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 14%, China 8%, Germany 7%, United Kingdom 6% (2019)
Commodities: textiles, clothing and apparel, rice, leather goods, surgical instruments (2019)

$76.392 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$52.098 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$57.976 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 28%, United Arab Emirates 11%, United States 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, crude petroleum, natural gas, palm oil, scrap iron (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$22.812 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$18.522 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$16.586 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$107.527 billion (2019 est.)
$95.671 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 162.906 (2021 est.)
161.838 (2020 est.)
150.036 (2019 est.)
121.824 (2018 est.)
105.455 (2017 est.)

Pakistan - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 46 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 94.9% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 99.9% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 91.9% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 103,493,520,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 487 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 39.925 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 55.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 8.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 31.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 100,700 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 493,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 7,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 198,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 540 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 291,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 25,510 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 264,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 38,056,250,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 48,391,627,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 10,743,167,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 592.218 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 193.869 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 47.468 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 67.789 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 78.611 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 15.859 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Pakistan - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 2,799,360 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 188,711,452 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: television is the most popular and dominant source of news in Pakistan with over 120 satellite tv stations licensed by the country’s electronic media regulatory body, PEMRA ,and 42 media companies/channels with landing rights permission; state-run Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) is the largest television network in the country and serves over 85 percent of the population with the largest terrestrial infrastructure of the country; PTV consists of nine TV Channels and PTV networks give special coverage to Kashmir; Pakistanis have access to over 100 private cable and satellite channels; six channels are considered the leaders for news reporting and current affairs programing in the country; state-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC or Radio Pakistan) has the largest radio audience in the country, particularly in the rural areas; Radio Pakistan’s AM/SW/FM stations cover 98 percent of the population and 80 percent of the total area in the country; all major newspapers have online editions and all major print publications operate websites; freedom of the press and freedom of speech in the country are fragile (2022)

Internet country code: .pk

Internet users
Total: 48.3 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 21% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 2,523,027 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2020 est.)

Pakistan - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
4% of GDP (2022 est.)
4% of GDP (2021 est.)
4% of GDP (2020 est.)
4.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
4.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Pakistan Armed Forces: Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes marines, Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fizaia)

Ministry of Interior: Frontier Corps, Pakistan Rangers (2023)

Note 1: the National Guard is a paramilitary force and one of the Army's reserve forces, along with the Pakistan Army Reserve, the Frontier Corps, and the Pakistan Rangers
Note 2: the Frontier Corps is a paramilitary force manned mostly by individuals from the tribal areas and commanded by officers from the Pakistan Army; its primary mission is security of the border with Afghanistan; the Frontier Corps is under the Ministry of Interior, but would report to the Army in times of conflict
Note 3: the Pakistan Rangers is a paramilitary force operating in Sindh and Punjab

Military service age and obligation: 16 (or 17 depending on service) to 23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Haqqani Network; Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami; Harakat ul-Mujahidin; Hizbul Mujahideen; Indian Mujahedeen; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K); Islamic State of ash-Sham - India; Islamic State of ash-Sham - Pakistan; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Jaish-e-Mohammed; Jaysh al Adl (Jundallah); Lashkar i Jhangvi; Lashkar-e Tayyiba; Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP); al-Qa’ida; al-Qa’ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Pakistan - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 52
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,880,637 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 217.53 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: AP

Airports: 151 (2021)
With paved runways: 108
With paved runways civil airports: 5
With paved runways military airports: 12
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 5
With paved runways other airports: 86
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 43
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 108
Civil airports: 5
Military airports: 12
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 5
Other airports: 86
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 43
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 23 (2021)

Pipelines: 13,452 km gas transmission and 177,029 km gas distribution, 3,663 km oil, 1,150 km refined products (2022)

Total: 11,881 km (2021)
Narrow gauge: 389 km (2021) 1.000-m gauge
Broad gauge: 11,492 km (2021) 1.676-m gauge (286 km electrified)

Total: 264,175 km (2021)
Paved: 185,463 km (2021) (includes 708 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 78,712 km (2021)


Merchant marine
Total: 58 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 5, oil tanker 7, other 46

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
Container ports teus: Karachi (2,097,855) (2019)
Lng terminals import: Port Qasim

Pakistan - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalPakistan-Afghanistan: since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated about 5.3 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.74-3 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; in February 2022, amid skirmishes between Taliban and Pakistani forces, Pakistan announced its intent to finish constructing the barbed wire fence along the Durand Line and bring nearby areas under its control; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 2.64-2.9 million (1.3 million registered, 1.34-1.6 million undocumented or otherwise categorized) (Afghanistan) (2023)
IDPs: 21,000 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2022)
Stateless persons: 48 (2022)

Illicit drugs: one of the world’s top transit corridors for opiates and cannabis products trafficked with Afghanistan and Iran; increased synthetic drug smuggling primarily methamphetamine; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants


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