Statistical information Panama 2023Panama

Map of Panama | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Panama in the World
Panama in the World

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Panama - Introduction 2023
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Background: Explored and settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, Panama broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela - named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When the latter dissolved in 1830, Panama remained part of Colombia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. An ambitious expansion project to more than double the Canal's capacity - by allowing for more Canal transits and larger ships - was carried out between 2007 and 2016.


Panama - Geography 2023
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Location: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Area
Total: 75,420 km²
Land: 74,340 km²
Water: 1,080 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries
Total: 687 km
Border countries: (2) Colombia 339 km; Costa Rica 348 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or edge of continental margin

Climate: tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains with dissected, upland plains; coastal plains with rolling hills

Elevation
Highest point: Volcan Baru 3,475 m
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 360 m

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 30.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 7.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 2.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 20.7% (2018 est.)
Forest: 43.6% (2018 est.)
Other: 25.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 407 km² (2020)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 760 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 450 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 139.3 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area

Geography
Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean


Panama - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population is concentrated towards the center of the country, particularly around the Canal, but a sizeable segment of the populace also lives in the far west around David; the eastern third of the country is sparsely inhabited: 4,404,108 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.51% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 22.1% (2016 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Panamanian(s)
Adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 65%, Native American 12.3% (Ngabe 7.6%, Kuna 2.4%, Embera 0.9%, Bugle 0.8%, other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2%), Black or African descent 9.2%, Mulatto 6.8%, White 6.7% (2010 est.)

Languages: Spanish (official), indigenous languages (including Ngabere (or Guaymi), Buglere, Kuna, Embera, Wounaan, Naso (or Teribe), and Bri Bri), Panamanian English Creole (similar to Jamaican English Creole; a mixture of English and Spanish with elements of Ngabere; also known as Guari Guari and Colon Creole), English, Chinese (Yue and Hakka), Arabic, French Creole, other (Yiddish, Hebrew, Korean, Japanese); note - many Panamanians are bilingual
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Roman Catholic 48.6%, Evangelical 30.2%, other 4.7%, agnostic 0.2%, atheist 0.2%, none 12.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2018 est.)

Demographic profile: Panama is a country of demographic and economic contrasts. It is in the midst of a demographic transition, characterized by steadily declining rates of fertility, mortality, and population growth, but disparities persist based on wealth, geography, and ethnicity. Panama has one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America and dedicates substantial funding to social programs, yet poverty and inequality remain prevalent. The indigenous population accounts for a growing share of Panama's poor and extreme poor, while the non-indigenous rural poor have been more successful at rising out of poverty through rural-to-urban labor migration. The government's large expenditures on untargeted, indirect subsidies for water, electricity, and fuel have been ineffective, but its conditional cash transfer program has shown some promise in helping to decrease extreme poverty among the indigenous population.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 25.19% (male 569,439/female 540,143)
15-64 years: 64.87% (male 1,444,638/female 1,412,319)
65 years and over: 9.94% (2023 est.) (male 204,156/female 233,413)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.8
Youth dependency ratio: 40.6
Elderly dependency ratio: 13.2
Potential support ratio: 7.6 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 31.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 30.8 years
Female: 31.6 years

Population growth rate: 1.51% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 17.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population is concentrated towards the center of the country, particularly around the Canal, but a sizeable segment of the populace also lives in the far west around David; the eastern third of the country is sparsely inhabited

Urbanization
Urban population: 69.5% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.977 million PANAMA CITY (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 11.78 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 10.71 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 5.97 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio: 50 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 15.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 16.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 14 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 75.6 years
Female: 81.5 years

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 50.8% (2014/15)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 88.1% of population
Improved total: 96.2% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 11.9% of population
Unimproved total: 3.8% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 9.7% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.63 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 2.3 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
95.5% of population

rural: 69.1% of population

total: 87.2% of population

Unimproved urban:
4.5% of population

rural: 30.9% of population

total: 12.8% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: intermediate (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 22.7% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 6.54 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 5.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.2 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 5% (2020 est.)
Male: 7.7% (2020 est.)
Female: 2.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3% (2019)

Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95.7%
Male: 98.8%
Female: 95.4% (2019)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 13 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 13 years (2016)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 30% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 21.8%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 43.6%


Panama - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Panama
Conventional short form: Panama
Local long form: República de Panama
Local short form: Panama
Etymology: named after the capital city which was itself named after a former indigenous fishing village

Government type: presidential republic

Capital
Name: Panama City
Geographic coordinates: 8 58 N, 79 32 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: according to tradition, the name derives from a former fishing area near the present capital - an indigenous village and its adjacent beach - that were called "panama" meaning "an abundance of fish"

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 4 indigenous regions* (comarcas); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Embera-Wounaan*, Guna Yala*, Herrera, Los Santos, Naso Tjer Di*, Ngabe-Bugle*, Panama, Panama Oeste, Veraguas

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain on 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day (Separation Day), 3 November (1903)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest effective 11 October 1972
Amendments: proposed by the National Assembly, by the Cabinet, or by the Supreme Court of Justice; passage requires approval by one of two procedures: 1) absolute majority vote of the Assembly membership in each of three readings and by absolute majority vote of the next elected Assembly in a single reading without textual modifications; 2) absolute majority vote of the Assembly membership in each of three readings, followed by absolute majority vote of the next elected Assembly in each of three readings with textual modifications, and approval in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2004

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen (since 1 July 2019); Vice President Jose Gabriel CARRIZO Jaen (since 1 July 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen (since 1 July 2019); Vice President Jose Gabriel CARRIZO Jaen (since 1 July 2019)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term; president eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024)
Election results:
2019: Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen elected president; percent of vote - Laurentino CORTIZO Cohen (PRD) 33.3%, Romulo ROUX (CD) 31%, Ricardo LOMBANA (independent) 18.8%, Jose BLANDON (Panamenista Party) 10.8%, Ana Matilde GOMEZ Ruiloba (independent) 4.8%, other 1.3%

2014: Juan Carlos VARELA elected president; percent of vote - Juan Carlos VARELA (PP) 39.1%, Jose Domingo ARIAS (CD) 31.4%, Juan Carlos NAVARRO (PRD) 28.2%, other 1.3%


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (71 seats; 45 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - populous towns and cities - by open list proportional representation vote and 26 directly elected in single-seat constituencies - outlying rural districts - by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 5 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024)
Election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 35, CD 18, Panamenista 8, MOLIRENA 5, independent 5; composition - men 55, women 16, percent of women 22.5%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 magistrates and 9 alternates and divided into civil, criminal, administrative, and general business chambers)
Judge selection and term of office: magistrates appointed by the president for staggered 10-year terms
Subordinate courts: appellate courts or Tribunal Superior; Labor Supreme Courts; Court of Audit; circuit courts or Tribunal Circuital (2 each in 9 of the 10 provinces); municipal courts; electoral, family, maritime, and adolescent courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance Party or PA [Jose MUNOZ Molina]
Alternative Independent Socialist Party or PAIS [Jose ALVAREZ]
Democratic Change or CD [Romulo ROUX]
Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Benicio ROBINSON]
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Francisco "Pancho" ALEMAN]
Panamenista Party [Jose Isabel BLANDON Figueroa] (formerly the Arnulfista Party)
Popular Party or PP [Daniel Javier BREA Clavel] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
Realizing Goals Party or RM [Ricardo Alberto MARTINELLI Berrocal]


International organization participation: BCIE, CAN (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA, UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ramón Eduardo MARTÍNEZ DE LA GUARDIA (since 16 September 2022)
In the us chancery: 2,862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 483-8,413
In the us email address and website:
info@embassyofpanama.org

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Mari Carmen APONTE (since 21 November 2022)
From the us embassy: Building 783, Demetrio Basilio Lakas Avenue, Clayton
From the us mailing address: 9,100 Panama City PL, Washington, DC 20,521-9,100
From the us telephone: [507] 317-5,000
From the us FAX: [507] 317-5,568
From the us email address and website:
Panama-ACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Panama: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center; the blue and red colors are those of the main political parties (Conservatives and Liberals respectively) and the white denotes peace between them; the blue star stands for the civic virtues of purity and honesty, the red star signifies authority and law

National symbols: harpy eagle; national colors: blue, white, red

National anthem
Name: "Himno Istmeno" (Isthmus Hymn)
Lyrics/music: Jeronimo DE LA OSSA/Santos A. JORGE
Note: adopted 1925

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 5 (2 cultural, 3 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]


Panama - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income Central American economy; increasing Chinese trade; US dollar user; canal expansion fueling broader infrastructure investment; services sector dominates economy; historic money-laundering and illegal drug hub

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$126.352 billion (2021 est.)
$109.551 billion (2020 est.)
$133.509 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
15.34% (2021 est.)
-17.94% (2020 est.)
2.98% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 45.6% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 10.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 42.9% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 41.9% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -44.2% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.)
Industry: 15.7% (2017 est.)
Services: 82% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 37.5% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 1.966 million (2021 est.)
Note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
12.09% (2021 est.)
12.85% (2020 est.)
4.73% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 30% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 21.8%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 43.6%

Population below poverty line: 22.1% (2016 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 49.8 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.1%
Highest 10%: 38.9% (2014 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $9.743 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $15.145 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
37.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 8.51% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$1.412 billion (2021 est.)
$1.097 billion (2020 est.)
-$3.329 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.63% (2021 est.)
-1.55% (2020 est.)
-0.36% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$1.412 billion (2021 est.)
$1.097 billion (2020 est.)
-$3.329 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$27.237 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$20.179 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$28.622 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Note: includes the Colon Free Zone
Partners: Ecuador 20%, Guatemala 14%, China 8%, United States 6%, Netherlands 6% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, copper, bananas, ships, coal tar oil, packaged medicines (2019)

Imports:
$24.627 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$17.502 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$27.599 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Note: includes the Colon Free Zone
Partners: China 21%, United States 19%, Japan 16%, Colombia 6%, Ecuador 5% (2019)
Commodities: ships, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, tanker ships, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$9.614 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$3.423 billion (31 December 2019 est.)
$2.121 billion (31 December 2018 est.)


Debt external:
$101.393 billion (2019 est.)
$94.898 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
balboas (PAB) per US dollar - 1 (2021 est.)
1 (2020 est.)
1 (2019 est.)
1 (2018 est.)
1 (2017 est.)



Panama - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: (2020) less than 1 million
Electrification-total population: 95.2% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 99.7% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 85.6% (2020)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 10,808,780,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 427 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 77 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 4.106 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 24.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 2.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 6.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 66.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 143,700 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 66 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 129,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 552.744 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 552.744 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 25.263 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1.905 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 22.281 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 1.077 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 98.946 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Panama - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 811,488 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 6,003,255 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 138 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: multiple privately owned TV networks and a government-owned educational TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; more than 100 commercial radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .pa

Internet users
Total: 2.992 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 68% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 562,413 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2020 est.)


Panama - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.1% of GDP (2018)


Military and security forces: no regular military forces; the paramilitary Panamanian Public Forces are under the Ministry of Public Security and include the Panama National Police (Panama - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 122
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,939,350 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 47.63 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: HP

Airports: 117 (2021)
With paved runways: 57
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 60
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 57
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 60
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 3 (2021)

Pipelines: 128 km oil (2013)

Railways
Total: 77 km (2014)
Standard gauge: 77 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

Roadways
Total: (2010)
Paved: (2010)
Unpaved: (2010)

Waterways: 800 km (2011) (includes the 82-km Panama Canal that is being widened)

Merchant marine
Total: 8,025 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 2,690, container ship 662, general cargo 1,418, oil tanker 785, other 2,470

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Balboa, Colon, Cristobal
Container ports teus: Balboa (3,561,432), Colon (4,915,975) (2021)


Panama - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalPanama-Colombia: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 147,424 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2023)

Illicit drugs: not a major consumer or producer of illicit drugs; a prime sea and land passage for drugs, primarily cocaine, from South America to North America and Europe;  drug traffickers also use millions of shipping containers to smuggle drugs to North America and Europe through the Panama


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