Statistical information Peru 2023Peru

Map of Peru | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Peru in the World
Peru in the World


Peru - Introduction 2023
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Background: Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980 but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016. Facing impeachment after evidence surfaced of his involvement in a vote-buying scandal, President KUCZYNSKI offered his resignation on 21 March 2018. Two days later, First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo was sworn in as president. On 30 September 2019, President VIZCARRA invoked his constitutional authority to dissolve Peru's Congress after months of battling with the body over anticorruption reforms. New congressional elections took place on 26 January 2020 resulting in the return of an opposition-led legislature. President VIZCARRA was impeached by Congress on 9 November 2020 for a second time and removed from office after being accused of corruption and mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of vacancies in the vice-presidential positions, constitutional succession led to the President of the Peruvian Congress, Manuel MERINO, becoming the next president of Peru. His ascension to office was not well received by the population, and large protests forced his resignation on 15 November 2020. On 17 November, Francisco SAGASTI assumed the position of President of Peru after being appointed President of the Congress the previous day. Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones won the second round of presidential elections on 6 June 2021 and was inaugurated on 28 July.

Peru - Geography 2023
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Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 1,285,216 km²
Land: 1,279,996 km²
Water: 5,220 km²
Comparative: almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries
Total: 7,062 km
Border countries: (5) Bolivia 1,212 km; Brazil 2,659 km; Chile 168 km; Colombia 1,494 km; Ecuador 1,529 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 200 nm; note: the US does not recognize this claim
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,746 m
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 1,555 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 18.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 3.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 14.6% (2018 est.)
Forest: 53% (2018 est.)
Other: 28.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 25,800 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Amazon river source (shared with Brazil [m]) - 6,400 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: Amazon (6,145,186 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 2.24 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 3.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 32.8 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 1.88 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Note note 1: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Note note 2: Peru is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
Note note 3: on 19 February 1600, Mount Huaynaputina in the southern Peruvian Andes erupted in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historical times; intermittent eruptions lasted until 5 March 1600 and pumped an estimated 16 to 32 million metric tons of particulates into the atmosphere reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface and affecting weather worldwide; over the next two and a half years, millions died around the globe in famines from bitterly cold winters, cool summers, and the loss of crops and animals
Note note 4: the southern regions of Peru and the extreme northwestern part of Bolivia are considered to be the place of origin for the common potato

Peru - People 2023
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Distribution: approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated: 32,440,172 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.5% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 20.2% (2019 est.)

Noun: Peruvian(s)
Adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, White 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)

Languages: Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.7% (2017 est.)
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes Evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other 0.3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)

Demographic profile: Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 26.04% (male 4,311,243/female 4,136,849)
15-64 years: 65.94% (male 10,452,598/female 10,937,233)
65 years and over: 8.02% (2023 est.) (male 1,134,587/female 1,467,662)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53
Youth dependency ratio: 37.1
Elderly dependency ratio: 13.1
Potential support ratio: 7.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 30.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 29.1 years
Female: 31.1 years

Population growth rate: 0.5% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated

Urban population: 78.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.33% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 11.204 million LIMA (capital), 959,000 Arequipa, 904,000 Trujillo (2023)

Current issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes; overfishing
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 29.07 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 57.41 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 30.17 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 21.9 years (2013 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 69 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.9 years (2023 est.)
Male: 65.4 years
Female: 72.7 years

Total fertility rate: 2.18 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 77.4% (2020)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 97.2% of population
Improved rural: 82.4% of population
Improved total: 94% of population
Unimproved urban: 2.8% of population
Unimproved rural: 17.6% of population
Unimproved total: 6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.37 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
93.6% of population

rural: 65.3% of population

total: 87.4% of population

Unimproved urban:
6.4% of population

rural: 34.7% of population

total: 12.6% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 19.7% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 5.74 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.46 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 8.1% (2020 est.)
Male: 13.2% (2020 est.)
Female: 3% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.1% (2021)

Education expenditures: 4% of GDP (2021 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 94.5%
Male: 97%
Female: 92% (2020)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 15 years (2017)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 11.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 9.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 13.2%

Peru - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: República del Peru
Local short form: Peru
Etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Lima
Geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the word "Lima" derives from the Spanish pronunciation of "Limaq," the native name for the valley in which the city was founded in 1535; "limaq" means "talker" in coastal Quechua and referred to an oracle that was situated in the valley but which was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church

Administrative divisions: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)

History: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993
Amendments: proposed by Congress, by the president of the republic with the approval of the Council of Ministers or by petition of at least 0.3% of voters; passage requires absolute majority approval by the Congress membership, followed by approval in a referendum; a referendum is not required if Congress approves the amendment by greater than two-thirds majority vote in each of two successive sessions; amended many times, last in 2021

Legal system: civil law system

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022); first vice president (vacant); second vice president (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022); first vice president (vacant); second vice president (vacant)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 11 April 2021 with a runoff on 6 June 2021 (next to be held in April 2,026)
Election results:
2021: Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (PL) 18.9%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 13.4%, Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA Cazorla (RP) 11.8%, Hernando DE SOTO Polar (Social Integration Party) 11.6%, Yonhy LESCANO Ancieta (AP) 9.1%, Veronika MENDOZA Frisch (JP) 7.9%, Cesar ACUNA Peralta (APP) 6%, George FORSYTH Sommer (VN) 5.7%, Daniel Belizario URRESTI Elera (PP) 5.6%, other 10%; percent of vote second round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (PL) 50.1%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 49.9%

2016: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (PPK) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (FA) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (AP) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

Note 1: First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra assumed the office of the president on 7 December 2022 after President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones was impeached and arrested; BOLUARTE is the first woman to become president of Peru
Note 2: Prime Minister Alberto OTAROLA Penaranda (since 21 December 2022) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 11 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2,026)
Election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Free Peru 32, Popular Force 24, AP 15, APP 15, Avanza Pais 10, Popular Renewal 9, Democratic Peru 7, We Are Peru 5, We Can Peru 5, JP 5, Purple Party 3; composition - men 78, women 52, percent of women 40%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
Judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Board of Justice (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
Subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders:
Advance the Nation (Avanza Pais) [Aldo BORRERO Zeta]
Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or FA [Marco ARANA]
Free Peru (Peru Libre) or PL [Vladimir CERRON Rojas]
Front for Hope (Frente Esperanza) [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]
National Victory (Victoria Nacional) or VN [George FORSYTH Sommer]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Force (Fuerza Popular) or FP [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
Popular Renewal (Renovacion Popular) or RP [Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA]
Purple Party (Partido Morado) [Luis DURAN Rojo]
Social Integration Party (Avanza Pais - Partido de Integracion Social) [Aldo BORRERO]
Together For Peru (Juntos por el Peru) or JP [Robert SANCHEZ Palomino]
We Are Peru (Somos Peru) of SP [Patricia LI]
We Can Peru (Podemos Peru) or PP [Jose Leon LUNA Galvez]

International organization participation: APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, PROSUR, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gustavo Adolfo MEZA-CUADRA Velásquez (since 30 June 2023)
In the us chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 833-9,860
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 659-8,124
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); flag of Peru: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace

National symbols: vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white

National anthem
Name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
Lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
Note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 13 (9 cultural, 2 natural, 2 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Cuzco (c); [link]

Peru - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income South American economy; hit hard by political instability and COVID-19 but rebounding quickly; second-largest cocaine producer; current account balance improving; persistent income inequality; diversified exporter

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$421.937 billion (2021 est.)
$372.245 billion (2020 est.)
$418.03 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
13.35% (2021 est.)
-10.95% (2020 est.)
2.24% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 64.9% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 24% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 7.6% (2017 est.)
Industry: 32.7% (2017 est.)
Services: 59.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: 16.44% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 18.352 million (2021 est.)
Note: individuals older than 14 years of age
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.83% (2021 est.)
7.18% (2020 est.)
3.38% (2019 est.)

Note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 11.2% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 9.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 13.2%

Population below poverty line: 20.2% (2019 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 43.8 (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.4%
Highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $45.983 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $49.134 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
34.67% of GDP (2020 est.)
26.54% of GDP (2019 est.)
25.7% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Taxes and other revenues: 13.2% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0.12% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$5.273 billion (2021 est.)
$2.398 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.68 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
4.27% (2021 est.)
2% (2020 est.)
2.25% (2019 est.)

Note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$5.273 billion (2021 est.)
$2.398 billion (2020 est.)
-$1.68 billion (2019 est.)

$66.098 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$45.624 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$54.676 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: China 29%, United States 12%, Canada 5%, South Korea 5%, Switzerland 5% (2019)
Commodities: copper, gold, refined petroleum, zinc, fishmeal, tropical fruits, lead, iron, molybdenum (2019)

$58.611 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$42.093 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$51.778 billion (2019 est.)

Partners: China 24%, United States 22%, Brazil 6% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cars, broadcasting equipment, delivery trucks (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$74.779 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$67.711 billion (31 December 2019 est.)
$60.333 billion (31 December 2018 est.)

Debt external:
$81.333 billion (2019 est.)
$75.467 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar - 3.881 (2021 est.)
3.495 (2020 est.)
3.337 (2019 est.)
3.287 (2018 est.)
3.26 (2017 est.)

Peru - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: (2020) less than 1 million
Electrification-total population: 95.6% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 98.9% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 83.5% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 49,121,370,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 60 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 15.34 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 38.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 3.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 55.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 122,500 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 265,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 6,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 112,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 858.9 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 166,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 62,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 65,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 12,079,211,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 8,278,048,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 5.446 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 300.158 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 54.996 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1.171 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 35.119 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 18.706 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 36.465 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Peru - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,797,709 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 43,129,394 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 5,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2021)

Internet country code: .pe

Internet users
Total: 24.14 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 71% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 3.044 million (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2020 est.)

Peru - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Armed Forces of Peru (Fuerzas Armadas del Perú or FAP): Peruvian Army (Ejercito del Peru), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval infantry and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP)

Ministry of the Interior (Ministerio del Interior): Peruvian National Police (Policía Nacional del Perú, PNP) (2023)

Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service (12 months); no conscription (abolished in 1999) (2023)
Note: as of 2019, women made up about 10% of the active duty military

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Peru - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 62
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,758,527 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 313.26 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: OB

Airports: 191 (2021)
With paved runways: 59
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 132
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 59
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 132
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 5 (2021)

Pipelines: 786 km extra heavy crude, 1,526 km gas, 679 km liquid petroleum gas, 1,106 km oil, 15 km refined products (2022)

Total: 1,854.4 km (2017)
Standard gauge: 1,730.4 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 124 km (2014) 0.914-m gauge

Total: 18,699 km (2018)
Paved: 18,699 km
Note: includes 27,109 km of national roads (21,434 km paved), 247,505 km of departmental roads (3,623 km paved), and 113,857 km of local roads (1,858 km paved)

Waterways: 8,808 km (2011) (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon River system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca)

Merchant marine
Total: 101 (2022)
By type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 8, other 92

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Callao, Matarani, Paita
Oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
Container ports teus: Balboa (3,563,432); Callao (2,486,425) (2021)
River ports: Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)

Peru - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalPeru-Bolivia: Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 1,518,102 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2023)
IDPs: 73,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2022)

Illicit drugs: world’s second-largest producer of cocaine and coca (after Colombia), with approximately 84,400 hectares (ha) under cultivation in 2021;  Peruvian cocaine is trafficked throughout South America for shipment to Europe, East Asia, Mexico, and the United States;  major importer of precursor chemicals for cocaine production; growing domestic drug consumption problem; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics

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