Statistical information Portugal 2023Portugal

Map of Portugal | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Portugal in the World
Portugal in the World


Portugal - Introduction 2023
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Background: Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Portugal - Geography 2023
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Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map referenceEurope

Total: 92,090 km²
Land: 91,470 km²
Water: 620 km²
Note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Comparative: slightly smaller than Virginia

Land boundaries
Total: 1,224 km
Border countries: (1) Spain 1,224 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains

Highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 372 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 39.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 11.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 7.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 20% (2018 est.)
Forest: 37.8% (2018 est.)
Other: 22.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,662 km² (2019)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 880 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.83 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 3.42 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 77.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; they are two of the four North Atlantic archipelagos that make up Macaronesia; the others are the Canary Islands (Spain) and Cabo Verde

Portugal - People 2023
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Distribution: concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities: 10,223,150 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -0.17% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 17.2% (2018 est.)

Noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: Portuguese 95%; citizens from Portugal’s former colonies in Africa, Asia (Han Chinese), and South America (Brazilian) and other foreign born 5%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)

Religions: Roman Catholic 79.7%, Protestant 2.2%, other Christian 2.5%, other non-Christian, 1.1%, none 14.5% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent population 15 years of age and older

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 12.85% (male 672,673/female 641,409)
15-64 years: 65.18% (male 3,274,201/female 3,389,374)
65 years and over: 21.96% (2023 est.) (male 895,576/female 1,349,917)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 56
Youth dependency ratio: 20.8
Elderly dependency ratio: 35.2
Potential support ratio: 2.8 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 46 years (2023 est.)
Male: 44 years
Female: 47.9 years

Population growth rate: -0.17% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 8 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities

Urban population: 67.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.44% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 3.001 million LISBON (capital), 1.325 million Porto (2023)

Current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 7.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 48.74 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 10.93 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 29.9 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 81.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 78.6 years
Female: 85 years

Total fertility rate: 1.44 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73.9% (2014)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 99.7% of population
Improved total: 99.9% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0.3% of population
Unimproved total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 10.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 5.48 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.9% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 20.8% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 10.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 2.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 6.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 1.34 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.37 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 25.4% (2020 est.)
Male: 30.5% (2020 est.)
Female: 20.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 0.4% (2015/16)

Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 95.9%
Male: 97.8%
Female: 95.9% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 17 years
Male: 17 years
Female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 23.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 20.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 26.2%

Portugal - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
Conventional short form: Portugal
Local long form: Republica Portuguesa
Local short form: Portugal
Etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Name: Lisbon
Geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Time zone note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)
Etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe's oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city "Olisippo" when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became "Ulixbona," under the Arabs it was "al-Ushbuna"; the medieval version of "Lissabona" became today's Lisboa

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent areas

Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died

History: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976
Amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005

Legal system: civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)
Head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015; resigned on 7 November 2023 but remains in caretaker status until new elections on 10 March 2024)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2021 (next to be held on 10 March 2024); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
Election results:
2021: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 60.7%, Ana GOMES (ran as an independent but is a member of PS) 13%, Andre VENTURA (CH) 11.9%, João FERREIRA (PCP-PEV) 4.3%, other 10.1%

2016: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, António SAMPAIO DA NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria DE BELEM ROSEIRA (PS) 4.2%, other 10.8%  

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 30 January 2022 (next to be held in January 2,026); note - early elections were called after parliament was dissolved on 3 November 2021 because of the 27 October 2021 rejection of the government's budget
Election results: percent of vote by party - PS 42.5%, PSD 28.4%, Enough 7.4%, IL 5%, BE 4.5%, PCP-PEV 4.4%, other 7.8%; seats by party - PS 120, PSD 72, Enough 12, IL 8, PCP-PEV 6, BE 5, other 3; composition - men 145, women 85, percent of women 37%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms
Subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Alliance (2022 electoral alliance in the Azores, includes PSD, CDS-PP, PPM)
Democratic and Social Center/People's Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Nuno MELO]
Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
Enough (Chega) [Andre VENTURA]
Liberal Initiative (Iniciativa Liberal) or IL [Joao COTRIM DE FIGUEIREDO]
Madeira First (2022 electoral alliance in Madeira, includes PSD, CDS-PP)
People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Ines SOUSA REAL]
People's Monarchist Party or PPM [Gonçalo DA CAMARA PEREIRA]
Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD [Luis MONTENEGRO] (formerly the Partido Popular Democratico or PPD)
Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Paulo RAIMUNDO]
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS]
Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)

International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Antonio DUARTE LOPES (since 7 June 2022)
In the us chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 350-5,400
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 462-3,726
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Randi Charno LEVINE (since 22 April 2022)
From the us embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisboa
From the us mailing address: 5,320 Lisbon Place, Washington DC 20,521-5,320
From the us telephone: [351] (21) 727-3,300
From the us FAX: [351] (21) 726-9,109
From the us email address and website:

Flag descriptionflag of Portugal: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbols: armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem
Name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
Lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
Note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 17 (16 cultural, 1 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Évora (c); Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores (c); Cultural Landscape of Sintra (c); Laurisilva of Madeira (n); [link]

Portugal - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: fast-growing, high-income European economy; EU and NATO member; heavy Chinese infrastructure ownership; key tourism, banking, and telecommunications sectors; declining populations; major energy exporter

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$347.694 billion (2021 est.)
$329.623 billion (2020 est.)
$359.46 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
5.48% (2021 est.)
-8.3% (2020 est.)
2.68% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.)
Industry: 22.1% (2017 est.)
Services: 75.7% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Industrial production growth rate: 5.63% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 5.174 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
6.65% (2021 est.)
6.79% (2020 est.)
6.46% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 23.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 20.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 26.2%

Population below poverty line: 17.2% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 32.8 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $102.052 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $101.854 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

Note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Taxes and other revenues: 22.04% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0.13% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$2.987 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.292 billion (2020 est.)
$1.013 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.27% (2021 est.)
-0.01% (2020 est.)
0.34% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$2.987 billion (2021 est.)
-$2.292 billion (2020 est.)
$1.013 billion (2019 est.)

$105.648 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$85.128 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$104.846 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Spain 26%, France 12%, Germany 12%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5% (2021)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, leather footwear, tires, paper (2021)

$112.413 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$89.515 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$103.009 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Spain 31%, Germany 12%, France 6%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2021)
Commodities: crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, natural gas (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$32.535 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$29.46 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$25.003 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$462.431 billion (2019 est.)
$483.206 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Portugal - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 48.409 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 6.097 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 7.553 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 22.364 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 39% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 23.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 26.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 7.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 8,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 249,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 255,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 323,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 143,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 78,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 5.94 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 6.09 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 50.37 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 4.882 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 33.429 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 12.059 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 101.734 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Portugal - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 5,437,049 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 12,476,165 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 121 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: Radio e Televisao de Portugal, the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations

Internet country code: .pt

Internet users
Total: 8.2 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 82% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 4,160,795 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2020 est.)

Portugal - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)

Military and security forces:
Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas): Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps, aka Corpo de Fuzileiros or Corps of Fusiliers), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP)

Ministry of Internal Administration: Foreigners and Borders Service, Public Security Service, National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana, GNR) (2023)

Note: the Foreigners and Borders Service has jurisdiction over immigration and border matters, the Public Security Police has jurisdiction in cities, and the GNR has jurisdiction in rural areas; the GNR is a national gendarmerie force comprised of military personnel with law enforcement, internal security, civil defense, disaster response, and coast guard duties; it is responsible to both the Ministry of Internal Administration and to the Ministry of National Defense; it is not part of the Armed Forces, but may be placed under the operational command of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces in the event of a national emergency; the GNR describes itself as a hinge between the Armed Forces and the police forces and other security services

Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary or contract military service; no compulsory military service (abolished 2004) but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; contract service lasts for an initial period of 2-6 years, and can be extended to a maximum of 20 years of service; initial voluntary military service lasts 12 months; reserve obligation to age 35 (2023)
Note: as of 2020, women made up about 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Portugal - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 168
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 17,367,956 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 454.21 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: CR, CS

Airports: 64 (2021)
With paved runways: 43
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 21
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 43
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 21
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


Pipelines: 1,344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)

Total: 2,526 km (2020) 1,696 km electrified

Total: 82,900 km (2008)
Paved: 71,294 km (2008) (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

Waterways: 210 km (2011) (on Douro River from Porto)

Merchant marine
Total: 820 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 103, container ship 290, general cargo 175, oil tanker 28, other 224

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
Container ports teus: Sines (1,420,000) (2019)
Lng terminals import: Sines

Portugal - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalPortugal-Spain: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 58,275 (Ukraine) (as of 4 June 2023)
Stateless persons: 55 (2022)

Illicit drugs: a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

Economy Bookings

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