Statistical information Romania 2023Romania

Map of Romania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Romania in the World

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Romania - Introduction 2023
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Background: The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.


Romania - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 238,391 km²
Land: 229,891 km²
Water: 8,500 km²
Comparative: twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries
Total: 2,844 km
Border countries: (5) Bulgaria 605 km; Hungary 424 km; Moldova 683 km; Serbia 531 km; Ukraine 601 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation
Highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
Mean elevation: 414 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)
Forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)
Other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,730 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km: Dunărea (Danube) river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km note - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 1.09 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 3.9 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 1.43 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 212 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Geography
Note: controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria


Romania - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania: 18,326,327 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -1.01% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 23.8% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Romanian(s)
Adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.3%, Hungarian 6%, Romani 3.4%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, other 0.9% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent individuals who declared an ethnic group in the 2021 national census; 13% did not respond; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5-11% of Romania's population

Languages: Romanian (official) 91.6%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 0.7% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent individuals who declared a maternal language in the 2021 national census; 13.1% did not respond
Major-language samples:
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Romanian)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Romanian Orthodox 85.3%, Roman Catholic 4.5%, Reformed 3%, Pentecostal 2.5, other 4.7% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent individuals who declared a religion in the 2021 national census; 13.9% did not respond

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 15.63% (male 1,472,449/female 1,391,671)
15-64 years: 62.13% (male 5,689,908/female 5,696,224)
65 years and over: 22.24% (2023 est.) (male 1,682,695/female 2,393,380)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.7
Youth dependency ratio: 24.6
Elderly dependency ratio: 29.1
Potential support ratio: 3.4 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 45.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 43.6 years
Female: 46.5 years

Population growth rate: -1.01% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 8.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 14.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Urbanization
Urban population: 54.7% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.776 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 13.3 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 69.26 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 27.62 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 27.1 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 72.9 years
Female: 80 years

Total fertility rate: 1.63 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 6.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density: 6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
96.9% of population

rural: 76% of population

total: 87.3% of population

Unimproved urban:
3.1% of population

rural: 24% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 22.5% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 10.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 5.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 3.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 28% (2020 est.)
Male: 35.9% (2020 est.)
Female: 20% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 3.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.9%
Male: 99.1%
Female: 98.7% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 14 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 20.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 20.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 20.1%


Romania - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Romania
Local long form: none
Local short form: Romania
Former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania
Etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Capital
Name: Bucharest
Geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"

Administrative divisions: 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
Amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or - if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003

Legal system: civil law system

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
Head of government: Prime Minister Marcel CIOLACU (since 15 June 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Hunor KELEMEN (since 23 December 2020)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
Election results:

2019:
Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%

2014: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%


Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Elections:
Senate - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 29.3%, PNL 25.6%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.9%, AUR 9.2%, UDMR 5.9%, other 14.1%; seats by party - PSD 47, PNL 41, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 25, AUR 14, UDMR 9; composition - men 111, women 25, percent of women 18.4%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 28.9%, PNL 25.2%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.4%, AUR 9.1%, UDMR 5.7%, other 15.7%; seats by party - PSD 110, PNL 93, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 55, AUR 33, UDMR 21, other 18; composition - men 267, women 63, percent of women 19.1%; note - total Parliament percent of women 18.9%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
Judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders:
2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Alliance for the Fatherland or APP [Codrin STEFANESCU]
Alliance for the Unity of Romanians or AUR [George SIMION]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Force of the Right or FD [Ludovic ORBAN]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Victor IOVICI]
Green Party [Marius LAZAR and Lavinia COSMA]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Nicolae CIUCA]
Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC]
PRO Romania or PRO [Victor PONTA]
Romanian Nationhood Party or PNR [Ninel PEIA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Catalin DRULA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
Social Liberal Humanist Party or PUSL [Daniel IONASCU] (formerly Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal) or PPU-SL)
S.O.S. Romania [Diana IOVANOVICI-SOSOACA]
The Right Alternative or AD [Adela MIRZA]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]
We are Renewing the European Project in Romania or REPER [Dacian CIOLOS; Ramona STRUGARIU; Dragos PISLARU]


International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Dan Andrei MURARU (since 15 September 2021)
In the us chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-4,829; [1] (202) 332-4,846
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-4,748
In the us email address and website:
washington@mae.ro; office@roembus.org

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen KAVALEC (since 14 February 2023)
From the us embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 15,118
From the us mailing address: 5,260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20,521-5,260
From the us telephone: [40] (21) 200-3,300
From the us FAX: [40] (21) 200-3,442
From the us email address and website:
ACSBucharest@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Romania: three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
Note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National symbols: golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

National anthem
Name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
Lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
Note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 9 (7 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Danube Delta (n); Churches of Moldavia (c); Monastery of Horezu (c); Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (c); Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (c); Historic Center of Sighişoara (c); Wooden Churches of Maramureş (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Roșia Montană Mining Landscape (c)


Romania - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, service- and industrial-based European economy; EU member but non-euro user until convergence criteria met; sustained growth prior to COVID-19; major FDI recipient; flat taxation structure; digital hub of Eastern Europe

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$588.451 billion (2021 est.)
$559.896 billion (2020 est.)
$581.272 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
5.1% (2021 est.)
-3.68% (2020 est.)
3.85% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)
Industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)
Services: 62.6% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 4.07% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 8.381 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.17% (2021 est.)
5.03% (2020 est.)
3.91% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 20.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 20.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 20.1%

Population below poverty line: 23.8% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 34.8 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 15.3%
Highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $72.193 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $83.59 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
57.11% of GDP (2020 est.)
43.21% of GDP (2019 est.)
42.56% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

Taxes and other revenues: 14.18% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.16% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$20.627 billion (2021 est.)
-$12.535 billion (2020 est.)
-$12.184 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
5.05% (2021 est.)
2.63% (2020 est.)
3.83% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$20.627 billion (2021 est.)
-$12.535 billion (2020 est.)
-$12.184 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$115.879 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$93.024 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$100.901 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 22%, Italy 10%, France 7% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)

Imports:
$132.056 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$103.899 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$111.184 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 5%, France 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$51.886 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$52.191 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$42.007 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$117.829 billion (2019 est.)
$115.803 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
lei (RON) per US dollar - 4.16 (2021 est.)
4.244 (2020 est.)
4.238 (2019 est.)
3.942 (2018 est.)
4.052 (2017 est.)



Romania - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 50,039,421,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 5.459 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 8.252 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 20.528 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 32.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 20.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 29.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 74,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 222,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 161,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 600 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 232,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 103,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 49,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 10,367,941,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 11,087,528,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 11.185 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 2,800,985,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 105.48 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 68.746 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 20.891 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 27.268 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 20.588 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 71.736 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Romania - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 2.222 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 22.929 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting

Internet country code: .ro

Internet users
Total: 15.96 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 84% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 5,684,782 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2020 est.)


Romania - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2.4% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.9% of GDP (2021)
2% of GDP (2020)
1.8% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces:
Romanian Armed Forces (Forțele Armate Române or Armata Română): Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force

Ministry of Internal Affairs: General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie (Jandarmeria Română), the Romanian Border Police, the General Directorate for Internal Protection, and the Directorate General for Anticorruption (2023)


Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary service for men and women; all military inductees contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36; conscription ended in 2006 (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Romania - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: YR

Airports: 45 (2021)
With paved runways: 26
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 19
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 26
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 19
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 2 (2021)

Pipelines: 3,726 km gas, 2,451 km oil (2013)

Railways
Total: 10,628 km (2020) 4,030 km electrified

Roadways
Total: 84,185 km (2012)
Paved: 49,873 km (2012) (includes 337 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)

Waterways: 1,731 km (2010) (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals)

Merchant marine
Total: 125 (2022)
By type: general cargo 11, oil tanker 6, other 108

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Constanta, Midia
River ports: Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)


Romania - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalRomania-Bulgaria: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 83,765 (Ukraine) (as of 17 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 297 (2022)
Note: 15,377 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-November 2023)

Illicit drugs: a source country for cannabis


Iberia


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