Statistical information Saint Kitts and Nevis 2023Saint%20Kitts%20and%20Nevis

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Saint Kitts and Nevis in the World

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Saint Kitts and Nevis - Introduction 2023
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Background: Carib Indians occupied the islands of the West Indies for hundreds of years before the British and French began settlement in 1623. During the course of the 17th century, Saint Kitts became the premier base for English and French expansion into the Caribbean. The French ceded the territory to the UK in 1713. At the turn of the 18th century, Saint Kitts was the richest British Crown Colony per capita in the Caribbean, a result of the sugar trade. Although small in size and separated by only 3 km (2 mi) of water, Saint Kitts and Nevis were viewed and governed as different states until the late-19th century, when the British forcibly unified them along with the island of Anguilla. In 1967, the island territory of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla became an associated state of the UK with full internal autonomy. The island of Anguilla rebelled and was allowed to secede in 1971. The remaining islands achieved independence in 1983 as Saint Kitts and Nevis. In 1998, a referendum on Nevis to separate from Saint Kitts fell short of the two-thirds majority vote needed.


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Geography 2023
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Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 17 20 N, 62 45 W

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean

Area
Total: 261 km² (Saint Kitts 168 km²; Nevis 93 km²)
Land: 261 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: tropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Elevation
Highest point: Mount Liamuiga 1,156 m
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

Natural resources: arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 23.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 19.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 3.5% (2018 est.)
Forest: 42.3% (2018 est.)
Other: 34.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 8 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)
Agricultural: 200,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to October)

Geography
Note: smallest country in the Western Hemisphere both in terms of area and population; with coastlines in the shape of a baseball bat and ball, the two volcanic islands are separated by a 3-km-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long, baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits in the center of its almost circular namesake island and its ball shape complements that of its sister island


Saint Kitts and Nevis - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: population clusters are found in the small towns located on the periphery of both islands: 54,817 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.59% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: NA

Nationality
Noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s)
Adjective: Kittitian, Nevisian

Ethnic groups: African descent 92.5%, mixed 3%, White 2.1%, East Indian 1.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 0.3% (2001 est.)

Languages: English (official)

Religions: Protestant 75.6% (includes Anglican 16.6%, Methodist 15.8%, Pentecostal 10.8%, Church of God 7.4%, Baptist 5.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Wesleyan Holiness 5.3%, Moravian 4.8%, Evangelical 2.1%, Brethren 1.7%, Presbyterian 0.3%), Roman Catholic 5.9%, Hindu 1.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, Rastafarian 1.3%, other 5%, none 8.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19.4% (male 5,338/female 5,298)
15-64 years: 68.54% (male 18,958/female 18,615)
65 years and over: 12.05% (2023 est.) (male 3,146/female 3,462)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 41.7
Youth dependency ratio: 28
Elderly dependency ratio: 13.7
Potential support ratio: 7.3 (2021)

Median age
Total: 38.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 38.3 years
Female: 37.8 years

Population growth rate: 0.59% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 12.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: population clusters are found in the small towns located on the periphery of both islands

Urbanization
Urban population: 31.1% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.06% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 14,000 BASSETERRE (capital) (2018)

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and silting affects marine life on coral reefs; water pollution from uncontrolled dumping of sewage
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 8.05 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 0.24 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 0.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 74.9 years
Female: 79.8 years

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 98.3% of population
Improved rural: 98.3% of population
Improved total: 98.3% of population
Unimproved urban: 1.7% of population
Unimproved rural: 1.7% of population
Unimproved total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)

Current health expenditure: 5.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.77 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
87.3% of population

rural: 87.3% of population

total: 87.3% of population

Unimproved urban:
12.7% of population

rural: 12.7% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2017 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 22.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 8.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 1.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 3.89 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.21 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2021 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 17 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 19 years (2015)

Youth unemployment


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis
Former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Etymology: Saint Kitts was, and still is, referred to as Saint Christopher and this name was well established by the 17th century (although who first applied the name is unclear); in the 17th century a common nickname for Christopher was Kit or Kitt, so the island began to be referred to as "Saint Kitt's Island" or just "Saint Kitts"; Nevis is derived from the original Spanish name "Nuestra Senora de las Nieves" (Our Lady of the Snows) and refers to the white halo of clouds that generally wreathes Nevis Peak
Note: Nevis is pronounced nee-vis

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital
Name: Basseterre
Geographic coordinates: 17 18 N, 62 43 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the French name translates as "low land" in English; the reference is to the city's low-lying location within a valley, as well as to the fact that the city is on the leeward (downwind) part of the island, and is thus a safe anchorage

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capesterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capesterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Dependent areas

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from the UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Constitution
History: several previous (preindependence); latest presented 22 June 1983, effective 23 June 1983
Amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership and assent of the governor general; amendments to constitutional provisions such as the sovereignty of the federation, fundamental rights and freedoms, the judiciary, and the Nevis Island Assembly also require approval in a referendum by at least two thirds of the votes cast in Saint Kitts and in Nevis

Legal system: English common law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 14 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Marcella LIBURD (since 1 February 2023)
Head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Terrance DREW (since 6 August 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Geoffrey HANLEY (since 13 August 2022)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor general in consultation with prime minister
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly (14 or 15 seats, depending on inclusion of attorney general; 11 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 3 appointed by the governor general - 2 on the advice of the prime minister and the third on the advice of the opposition leader; members serve 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 5 August 2022 (next to be held on 2,027)
Election results: percent of vote by party - SKNLP 44.4%, PLP 16.1%, PAM 16.2%, CCM 12.7%, other 10.6%; seats by party - SKNLP 6, CCM 3, PLP 1, CCM 1

Judicial branch
Highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 assigned to Saint Kitts and Nevis; note - the ECSC in 2003 replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) as the final court of appeal on Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Kitts and Nevis is also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by His Majesty, King Charles III; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, an independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
Subordinate courts: magistrates' courts

Political parties and leaders:
Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Mark BRANTLEY]
Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Dr. Janice DANIEL-HODGE]
People's Action Movement or PAM [Shawn K. RICHARDS]
People's Labour Party or PLP [Dr. Timothy HARRIS]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Terrance DREW]


International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jacinth HENRY-MARTIN (since 15 September 2023)
In the us chancery: 1203 19th St. NW, 5th Floor, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 686-2,636
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 686-5,740
In the us email address and website:
stkittsnevis@embskn.com

[link]

From the us embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis

Flag descriptionflag of Saint%20Kitts%20and%20Nevis: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing two white, five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red; green signifies the island's fertility, red symbolizes the struggles of the people from slavery, yellow denotes year-round sunshine, and black represents the African heritage of the people; the white stars stand for the islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis, but can also express hope and liberty, or independence and optimism

National symbols: brown pelican, royal poinciana (flamboyant) tree; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white

National anthem
Name: "Oh Land of Beauty!"
Lyrics/music: Kenrick Anderson GEORGES
Note: adopted 1983

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, tourism-based Caribbean OECS economy; better debt balancing; CARICOM and ECCU member; growing offshore financial and telecommunications hub; environmentally fragile; unique citizenship-driven growth model

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.261 billion (2021 est.)
$1.272 billion (2020 est.)
$1.488 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
-0.88% (2021 est.)
-14.53% (2020 est.)
4.05% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 41.4% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 25.9% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 30.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 62.5% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -60.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.1% (2017 est.)
Industry: 30% (2017 est.)
Services: 68.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 1.55% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 18,170 (June 1995 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1997)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: NA

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $286 million (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $324 million (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: 1.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
62.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
61.5% of GDP (2016 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 15.03% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$61.009 million (2021 est.)
-$78.456 million (2020 est.)
-$25.045 million (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.2% (2021 est.)
-1.17% (2020 est.)
-0.33% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$61.009 million (2021 est.)
-$78.456 million (2020 est.)
-$25.045 million (2019 est.)


Exports:
$408.471 million (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$383.152 million (2020 est.)
$598.343 million (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 56%, Italy 19%, Canada 4%, Germany 3%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3% (2021)
Commodities: broadcasting equipment, recreational boats, electrical plugs and sockets, measuring instruments, electrical transformers (2021)

Imports:
$441.192 million (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$432.584 million (2020 est.)
$602.385 million (2019 est.)

Partners: United States 50%, Trinidad and Tobago 10%, China 5%, Jamaica 4%, Germany 4% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, ships, cars, poultry, valves, jewelry (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$337.533 million (31 December 2021 est.)
$373.502 million (31 December 2020 est.)
$362.798 million (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$201.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$187.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2021 est.)
2.7 (2020 est.)
2.7 (2019 est.)
2.7 (2018 est.)
2.7 (2017 est.)



Saint Kitts and Nevis - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 175.34 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 71,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 96.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 3.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 1,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 1,743 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 268,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 268,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 71.96 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 15,700 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 57,000 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: the government operates a national TV network that broadcasts on 2 channels; cable subscription services provide access to local and international channels; the government operates a national radio network; a mix of government-owned and privately owned broadcasters operate roughly 15 radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .kn

Internet users
Total: 37,920 (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 79% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 30,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 56 (2020 est.)


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Military 2023
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces: Ministry of National Security: St. Kitts and Nevis Defense Force (SKNDF), St. Kitts and Nevis Coast Guard, the Royal St. Christopher and Nevis Police Force (2023)
Note: the Nevis Police Force includes the paramilitary Special Services Unit

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women (under 18 with written parental permission); no conscription (2023)

Terrorist groups


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: V4

Airports: 2 (2021)
With paved runways: 2
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with paved runways: 2
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways
Total: 50 km (2008)
Narrow gauge: 50 km (2008) 0.762-m gauge on Saint Kitts for tourists

Roadways
Total: 383 km (2002)
Paved: 163 km (2002)
Unpaved: 220 km (2002)

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 282 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 9, container ship 11, general cargo 64, oil tanker 46, other 152

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Basseterre, Charlestown


Saint Kitts and Nevis - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalSaint Kitts and Nevis-Venezuela: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: a transit point for cocaine and marijuana destined for North America, Europe, and elsewhere in the Caribbean; some local demand for cocaine and some use of synthetic drugs




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