Statistical information Slovakia 2023Slovakia

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Slovakia - Introduction 2023
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Background: Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. After the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, backlash to language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) encouraged the strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who fell administratively under the Austrian half of the empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. The new state was envisioned as a nation with Czech and Slovak branches. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state created by and allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of Czechoslovakia's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.


Slovakia - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 49,035 km²
Land: 48,105 km²
Water: 930 km²
Comparative: about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries
Total: 1,587 km
Border countries: (5) Austria 105 km; Czechia 241 km; Hungary 627 km; Poland 517 km; Ukraine 97 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation
Highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
Mean elevation: 458 m

Natural resources: lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 40.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 28.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 10.8% (2018 est.)
Forest: 40.2% (2018 est.)
Other: 19.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 211 km² (2015)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Dunaj (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²: Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 290 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 230 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 50.1 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Geography
Note: landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys


Slovakia - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border: 5,425,319 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: -0.13% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 11.9% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Slovak(s)
Adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 83.8%, Hungarian 7.8%, Romani 1.2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 5.4% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent population by nationality; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7-11% of Slovakia's population

Languages: Slovak (official) 81.8%, Hungarian 8.5%, Roma 1.8%, other 2.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2021 est.)
Major-language samples:
Svetova Kniha Faktov, nenahraditelny zdroj zakladnej informacie. (Slovak)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Roman Catholic 55.8%, Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession 5.3%, Greek Catholic 4%, Reformed Christian 1.6%, other 3%, none 23.8%, unspecified 6.5% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 14.87% (male 415,224/female 391,397)
15-64 years: 66.49% (male 1,811,919/female 1,795,499)
65 years and over: 18.64% (2023 est.) (male 404,979/female 606,301)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 49.5
Youth dependency ratio: 23.7
Elderly dependency ratio: 25.8
Potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 42.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 41 years
Female: 44.1 years

Population growth rate: -0.13% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 10.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Urbanization
Urban population: 54% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.17% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 441,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2023)

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and acid rain present human health risks and damage forests; land erosion caused by agricultural and mining practices; water pollution
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 15.89 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 32.42 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 4.43 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 27.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.6 years (2023 est.)
Male: 73.1 years
Female: 80.4 years

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: NA

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 7.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 3.57 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 5.7 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 20.5% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 10.3 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 2.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 4.14 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 31.5% (2020 est.)
Male: 37.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 25.6% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 14 years
Female: 15 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 21.5% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 24.6%


Slovakia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Slovak Republic
Conventional short form: Slovakia
Local long form: Slovenska republika
Local short form: Slovensko
Etymology: may derive from the medieval Latin word "Slavus" (Slav), which had the local form "Sloven", used since the 13th century to refer to the territory of Slovakia and its inhabitants

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Bratislava
Geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Etymology: the name was adopted in 1919 after Czechoslovakia gained its independence and may derive from later transliterations of the 9th century military commander, Braslav, or the 11th century Bohemian Duke BRETISLAV I; alternatively, the name may derive from the Slovak words brat (brother) and slava (glory)

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banska Bystrica, Bratislava, Kosice, Nitra, Presov, Trencin, Trnava, Zilina

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Constitution
History: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992
Amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2019)
Head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 25 October 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK (since 25 October 2023), Denisa SAKOVA (since 25 October 2023), Tomas TARABA (since 25 October 2023), and Peter KMEC (since 25 October 2023)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council
Election results:

2019:
Zuzana CAPUTOVA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

2014: Andrej KISKA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single- and multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 30 September 2023; next election to be held in February 2024
Election results:
2023: percent of vote by party - SMER-SSD 23%, PS 18%, Hlas-SD 14.7%, OL'aNO 8.9%, KDH 6.8%, SaS 6.3%, SNS 5.6%; seats by party SMER-SSD 42, PS 32, Hlas-SD 27, OL'aNO 16, KDH 12, SaS 11, 10

2020; percent of vote by party - OLaNO-NOVA 25%, Smer-SD 18.3%, Sme-Rodina or SR 8.2%, LSNS 8%, SaS 6.2%, Za Ludi or ZL 5.8%, other 28.5%; seats by party - OLaNO-NOVA 53, Smer-SD 38, Sme-Rodina 17, LSNS 17, SaS 13, Za Ludi 12; composition (as of April 2023) - men 117, women 33, percent of women 22%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 80 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 13 judges organized into 3-judge panels)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates nominated by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member self-governing body that includes the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president serve for life subject to removal by the president at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges serve 12-year terms
Subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Special Criminal Court; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit;

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance-Szovetseg or A-S [Krisztian FORRO]
Christian Union or KÚ [Anna ZABORSKA]
Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Ondrej DOSTAL]
Democrats [Eduard HEGER]
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SSD [Robert FICO]
For the People or Za Ludi [Veronika REMISOVA]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Life National Party or Život-NS [Tomáš TARABA] (formerly Christian Democracy - Life and Prosperity - Alliance for Slovkia)
New Majority or NOVA [Gábor GRENDEL]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
People's Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Progressive Slovakia or PS [Michal SIMECKA]
Republic [Milan UHRIK]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Voice - Social Democracy or Hlas-SD [Petr PELLIGRINI]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR] (formerly Party of Citizens of Slovakia)


International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Radovan JAVORCIK (since 18 January 2021)
In the us chancery: 3,523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 237-6,438
In the us email address and website:
emb.washington@mzv.sk

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gautam A. RANA (since 28 September 2022)
From the us embassy: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
From the us mailing address: 5,840 Bratislava Place, Washington DC 20,521-5,840
From the us telephone: [421] (2) 5,443-3,338
From the us FAX: [421] (2) 5,441-8,861
From the us email address and website:
consulbratislava@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Slovakia: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side
Note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbols: double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem
Name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)
Lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional
Note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku" (She was digging a well)

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 8 (6 cultural, 2 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica (c); Levoča, Spišský Hrad, and the Associated Cultural Monuments (c); Vlkolínec (c); Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (n); Bardejov Town (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Wooden Churches of the Slovak Carpathians (c); Frontiers of the Roman Empire - The Danube Limes (Western Segment) (c)


Slovakia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, EU-member European economy; major electronics and automobile exporter; new anticorruption and judiciary reforms; low unemployment; low regional innovation; strong financial sector

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$173.582 billion (2021 est.)
$168.503 billion (2020 est.)
$174.388 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
3.01% (2021 est.)
-3.37% (2020 est.)
2.52% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 54.7% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 21.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 96.3% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -92.9% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 3.8% (2017 est.)
Industry: 35% (2017 est.)
Services: 61.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical

Industrial production growth rate: 2.46% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 2.766 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
6.74% (2021 est.)
6.69% (2020 est.)
5.75% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 21.5% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.6%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 24.6%

Population below poverty line: 11.9% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 23.2 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 3.3%
Highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $43.495 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $44.914 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
77.36% of GDP (2020 est.)
61.99% of GDP (2019 est.)
62.29% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

Taxes and other revenues: 18.5% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.22% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$2.875 billion (2021 est.)
$671.914 million (2020 est.)
-$3.532 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
3.15% (2021 est.)
1.94% (2020 est.)
2.66% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$2.875 billion (2021 est.)
$671.914 million (2020 est.)
-$3.532 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$107.43 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$90.546 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$96.859 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 22%, Czechia 11%, Poland 7%, France 7%, Hungary 6%, Austria 5%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, video displays, broadcasting equipment, tires, refined petroleum (2019)

Imports:
$107.358 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$88.214 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$96.755 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 18%, Czechia 18%, Poland 8%, Hungary 7%, Russia 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum, natural gas, insulated wiring (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$9.61 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$9.344 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$7.169 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$115.853 billion (2019 est.)
$114.224 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)



Slovakia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 26.503 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 12.97 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 13.288 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 7.868 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 19.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 55.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 2.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 16.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 5.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 3,800 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 85,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 100 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 109,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 9 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 131,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 81,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 38,340 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 62.495 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 4.928 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 4.361 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 14.158 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 32.506 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 11.521 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 11.747 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 9.238 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 129.665 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Slovakia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 540,558 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2022 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 7,445,151 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2022 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations

Internet country code: .sk

Internet users
Total: 4.806 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 1,701,561 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)


Slovakia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2021)
1.9% of GDP (2020)
1.7% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces: Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (SSlovakia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 45

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: OM

Airports: 35 (2021)
With paved runways: 19
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 15
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 19
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 15
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 1 (2021)

Pipelines: 2,270 km gas transmission pipelines, 6,278 km high-pressure gas distribution pipelines, 27,023 km mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines (2016), 510 km oil (2015) (2016)

Railways
Total: 3,627 km (2020) 1,585 km electrified

Roadways
Total: 56,926 km (2016) (includes local roads, national roads, and 464 km of highways)

Waterways: 172 km (2012) (on Danube River)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals
River ports: Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)


Slovakia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalSlovakia-Austria: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 113,925 (Ukraine) (as of 17 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 2,940 (2022)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of MDMA (ecstasy)


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