Statistical information Somalia 2023Somalia

Map of Somalia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Somalia in the World
Somalia in the World

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Somalia - Introduction 2023
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Background:
Ancient Egypt trade expeditions along the northeastern coast of Africa - including today's Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia - occurred at various times between the 25th and 12th centuries B.C. Between A.D. 800 and 1100, immigrant Muslim Arabs and Persians set up coastal trading posts along the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, solidifying Somalia’s close trading relationship with the Arab Peninsula. In the late 19th century, Britain and Italy established colonies in the Somali Peninsula, where they remained until 1960, when British Somaliland gained independence and joined with Italian Somaliland to form the Republic of Somalia. The country functioned as a parliamentary democracy until 1969, when General Mohamed SIAD Barre took control in a coup, beginning a 22-year authoritarian socialist dictatorship. In an effort to centralize power, SIAD called for the eradication of the clan, the key cultural and social organizing principle in Somali society. Resistance to SIAD’s socialist leadership, which was causing a rapid deterioration of the country, prompted allied clan militias to overthrow SIAD in early 1991, resulting in state collapse. Subsequent fighting between rival clans for resources and territory overwhelmed the country, resulting in a manmade famine and prompting international intervention. Beginning in 1993, the UN spearheaded a humanitarian mission supported by international forces, but the international community largely withdrew by 1995 following an incident that became known as Black Hawk Down in which two American Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters were shot down in Mogadishu. The fighting and subsequent siege and rescue resulted in 21 deaths and 82 wounded among the international forces.

International peace conferences in the 2000s resulted in a number of transitional governments that operated outside of Somalia. Left largely to themselves, Somalis in the country established alternative governance structures; some areas formed their own administrations, such as Somaliland and Puntland, while others developed localized institutions. Many local populations turned to using sharia courts, an Islamic judicial system that implements religious law. Several of these courts came together in 2006 to form the Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU established order in many areas of central and southern Somalia, including Mogadishu, but was forced out when Ethiopia intervened militarily in December 2006 on behalf of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG). While the TFG settled in the capital, the ICU fled to rural areas or from Somalia altogether, reemerging less than a year later as the Islamic insurgent and terrorist movement al-Shabaab, which is still active today. In January 2007, the African Union (AU) established the AU Mission in Somalia peacekeeping force, which allowed Ethiopia to withdraw its forces, took over security responsibility for the country, and gave the TFG space to develop Somalia’s new government. By 2012, Somali powerbrokers agreed on a provisional constitution with a loose federal structure and established a central government in Mogadishu termed the Somali Federal Government (SFG). Since then, several interim regional administrations have been established and there have been two presidential elections. However, significant and fundamental governance and security problems remain for the SFG since al-Shabaab controls large portions of the country.




Somalia - Geography 2023
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Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total: 637,657 km²
Land: 627,337 km²
Water: 10,320 km²
Comparative: almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,385 km
Border countries: (3) Djibouti 61 km; Ethiopia 1,640 km; Kenya 684 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 200 nm; note: the US does not recognize this claim
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate: principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation
Highest point: Mount Shimbiris 2,460 m
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 410 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 70.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 1.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 68.5% (2018 est.)
Forest: 10.6% (2018 est.)
Other: 19.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,000 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 2 million cubic meters (2017 est.)
Agricultural: 3.28 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 14.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season

Geography
Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal


Somalia - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: distribution varies greatly throughout the country; least densely populated areas are in the northeast and central regions, as well as areas along the Kenyan border; most populated areas are in and around the cities of Mogadishu, Marka, Boorama, Hargeysa, and Baidoa as shown on this [link]: 12,693,796 (2023 est.)
Note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare
Growth rate: 2.49% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: NA

Nationality
Noun: Somali(s)
Adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)

Languages: Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
Major-language samples:
Buugga Xaqiiqda Aduunka, waa laga maarmaanka macluumaadka assasiga. (Somali)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)

Demographic profile: Somalia scores very low for most humanitarian indicators, suffering from poor governance, protracted internal conflict, underdevelopment, economic decline, poverty, social and gender inequality, and environmental degradation. Despite civil war and famine raising its mortality rate, Somalia’s high fertility rate and large proportion of people of reproductive age maintain rapid population growth, with each generation being larger than the prior one. More than 60% of Somalia’s population is younger than 25 as of 2020, and the fertility rate is among the world’s highest at almost 5.5 children per woman - a rate that has decreased little since the 1970s.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 41.54% (male 2,633,262/female 2,640,088)
15-64 years: 55.77% (male 3,609,721/female 3,469,735)
65 years and over: 2.69% (2023 est.) (male 143,742/female 197,248)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 99.4
Youth dependency ratio: 94.2
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.2
Potential support ratio: 19.3 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 19 years (2023 est.)
Male: 19.2 years
Female: 18.7 years

Population growth rate: 2.49% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 37.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: distribution varies greatly throughout the country; least densely populated areas are in the northeast and central regions, as well as areas along the Kenyan border; most populated areas are in and around the cities of Mogadishu, Marka, Boorama, Hargeysa, and Baidoa as shown on this [link]

Urbanization
Urban population: 47.9% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 2.610 million MOGADISHU (capital), 1.127 million Hargeysa (2023)

Environment
Current issues: water scarcity; contaminated water contributes to human health problems; improper waste disposal; deforestation; land degradation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 14.28 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 0.65 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 20.13 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio: 621 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 85.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 94.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 75.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 56.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 53.8 years
Female: 58.6 years

Total fertility rate: 5.22 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 6.9% (2018/19)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 96.4% of population
Improved rural: 73.7% of population
Improved total: 84.2% of population
Unimproved urban: 3.6% of population
Unimproved rural: 26.3% of population
Unimproved total: 15.8% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: 0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density: 0.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
82.4% of population

rural: 33.8% of population

total: 56.2% of population

Unimproved urban:
17.6% of population

rural: 66.2% of population

total: 43.8% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Somalia is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 8.3% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures: 0.3% of GDP (2019) NA

Literacy
Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 34.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 32.5%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 38.5%


Somalia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
Conventional short form: Somalia
Local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya (Somali)/ Jumhuriyat as Sumal al Fidiraliyah (Arabic)
Local short form: Soomaaliya (Somali)/ As Sumal (Arabic)
Former: British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
Etymology: "Land of the Somali" (ethnic group)

Government type: federal parliamentary republic

Capital
Name: Mogadishu
Geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: several theories attempt to explain the city's name; one of the more plausible is that it derives from "maq'ad-i-shah" meaning "the seat of the shah," reflecting the city's links with Persia

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - gobollo, singular - gobol); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland

Constitution
History: previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, adopted 1 August 2012 (provisional)
Amendments: proposed by the federal government, by members of the state governments, the Federal Parliament, or by public petition; proposals require review by a joint committee of Parliament with inclusion of public comments and state legislatures’ comments; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Parliament and approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum; constitutional clauses on Islamic principles, the federal system, human rights and freedoms, powers and authorities of the government branches, and inclusion of women in national institutions cannot be amended; note - in late December 2020, the president signed a decree blocking the approval of amendments

Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic (sharia) law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 23 May 2022)
Head of government: Prime Minister Hamza Abdi BARRE (since 25 June 2022)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People
Elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 15 May 2022 (next to be held in 2,026); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People; note - elections were originally scheduled for 10 October 2021 but did not take place; on 13 April 2022, the election of the House of the People representatives was completed and the presidential election date was set for 15 May 2022
Election results:

2022:
HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud elected president in third round - Federal Parliament percent of vote in first round - Said ABDULLAHI DENI (Kaah) 20.2%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 18.3%, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 16.2%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE (independent) 14.6%, other 30.7%; Federal Parliament percent of vote in second round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 34.1%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 25.7%, Said ABDULLAHI DENI 21%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE 19.2%; Federal Parliament percent of vote in third round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 66%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 34%

2017: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" elected president in second round; Federal Parliament number of votes in first round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 88, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 72, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 49, other 37; Federal Parliament number of votes in second round - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed 45


Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of:
Senate (54 seats; senators indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms)
House of the People (275 seats; members indirectly elected by electoral colleges, each consisting of 51 delegates selected by the 136 Traditional Elders in consultation with sub-clan elders; members serve 4-year terms)

Elections:
Senate - first held on 10 October 2016; last held 27 July - 13 November 2021 (next to be held in 2024)
House of the People - first held 23 October - 10 November 2016 (next scheduled for September - October 2021 but postponed to November 2021 and then extended numerous times until April 2022; next to be held in 2024)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 40, women 14, percent of women 25.9%
House of the People - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 225, women 50, percent of women 22.2%; note - total Parliament percent of women 19.5%

Note 1:
the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; in 2016 and 2017, the Federal Parliament became bicameral with indirect elections scheduled for 10 October 2016 for the Upper House - renamed 'Senate' and 23 October to 10 November 2016 for the House of the People; while the elections were delayed, they were eventually held in most regions despite voting irregularities; on 27 December 2016, 41 Upper House senators and 242 House of the People Members of Parliament (MP) were sworn in
note 2: despite the formation of political parties in 2020, the 2021 parliamentary elections maintained a primarily clan-based system of appointments; seats in the legislature were apportioned to Somali member states and not by party representation






Judicial branch
Highest courts: the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges, including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and the Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Islamic law
Judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
Subordinate courts: federal courts; federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia courts

Political parties and leaders: select National Independent Electoral Commission (NIEC) approved parties (as of 2020):

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Sharif AHMED (since 16 September 2019)
In the us chancery: 1609 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 853-9,164
In the us email address and website:
info@somaliembassydc.net

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Shane L. DIXON (since 25 July 2023)
From the us embassy: Mogadishu, (reopened October 2019 on the grounds of the Mogadishu Airport)
From the us mailing address:
P.O. Box 606 Village Market
00621 Nairobi, Kenya

From the us telephone: [254] 20 363-6,451
From the us email address and website:
Kenya_ACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Somalia: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)

National symbols: leopard; national colors: blue, white

National anthem
Name: "Qolobaa Calankeed" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
Lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE
Note: adopted 2012; written in 1959

National heritage


Somalia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: low-income African Horn economy; 30 years of war and instability crippled economic potential; high remittances for basic survival; new fiscal federalism approach; cleared some unsustainable debt; environmentally fragile; digitally driven urbanization efforts

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$19.399 billion (2021 est.)
$18.644 billion (2020 est.)
$18.191 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 US dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.05% (2021 est.)
2.49% (2020 est.)
7.46% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 72.6% (2015 est.)
Government consumption: 8.7% (2015 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 20% (2015 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 0.3% (2015 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -1.6% (2015 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 60.2% (2013 est.)
Industry: 7.4% (2013 est.)
Services: 32.5% (2013 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2014 est.)

Labor force: 3.042 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
19.86% (2021 est.)
19.72% (2020 est.)
18.83% (2019 est.)

NA


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 34.7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 32.5%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 38.5%

Population below poverty line: NA

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 36.8 (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: NA
Highest 10%: NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $145.3 million (2014 est.)
Expenditures: $151.1 million (2014 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -0.1% (of GDP) (2014 est.)

Public debt:
76.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
93% of GDP (2014 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 0% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue

Fiscal year: NA

Current account balance:
-$464 million (2017 est.)
-$427 million (2016 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.5% (2017 est.)
-71.1% (2016 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$464 million (2017 est.)
-$427 million (2016 est.)


Exports:
$819 million (2014 est.)
$779 million (2013 est.)

Partners: United Arab Emirates 47%, Saudi Arabia 19%, India 5%, Japan 5% (2019)
Commodities: gold, sheep, goats, sesame seeds, insect resins, cattle (2019)

Imports:
$94.43 billion (2018 est.)
$80.07 billion (2017 est.)

Partners: United Arab Emirates 32%, China 20%, India 17%, Turkey 7% (2019)
Commodities: cigarettes, raw sugar, rice, broadcasting equipment, textiles (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $30.45 million (2014 est.)

Debt external: $5.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar - 23,960 (2016 est.)


Somalia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: 10 million (2020)
Electrification-total population: 49.3% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 70.6% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 30.6% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 311.2 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 91,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 95.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 5,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 5,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 5.663 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 882,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 882,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 802,000 Btu/person (2019 est.)


Somalia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 91,000 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2022 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 8.844 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (2022 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in Mogadishu; several radio stations operate in central and southern regions; Somaliland has 1 government-operated radio station; Puntland has roughly a half-dozen private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2019)

Internet country code: .so

Internet users
Total: 2.465 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 14.5% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 119,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2020 est.)


Somalia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
6% of GDP (2021 est.)
6% of GDP (2020 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
6% of GDP (2018 est.)
5.9% of GDP (2017 est.)


Military and security forces:
Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF; aka Somali National Defense Force): Land Forces (Somali National Army or SNA), Somali Navy, Somali Air Force

Ministry of Internal Security: Somali National Police (SNP, includes Coast Guard and a commando unit known as Harmacad or Cheetah) 

National Security and Intelligence Agency (includes a commando/counterterrorism unit) (2023)

Note 1: the Somali Navy and Air Force have only a few hundred personnel, little equipment, and are not operational
Note 2: Somalia has numerous militia ("macawisley") and regional forces operating throughout the country; these forces include ones that are clan- and warlord-based, semi-official paramilitary and special police forces ("darwish"), and externally sponsored militias
Note 3: Somaliland and Puntland have separate military and security forces

Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service for men and women; conscription of men aged 18-40 and women aged 18-30 is authorized, but not currently utilized (2023)
Note: in 2019, the Federal Government of Somalia renewed its commitment to end the recruitment and use of child soldiers by signing a roadmap detailing measures and practical actions to prevent violations against children, release children associated with armed forces, and reintegrate them into communities; the signing followed a similar accord committed to ending the use of child soldiers signed by both the Somali Transitional Government and the UN in 2012

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: al-Shabaab; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - Somalia
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Somalia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,486 (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 6O

Airports: 52 (2021)
With paved runways: 8
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 44
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 8
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 44
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways
Total: 15,000 km (2018)

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 4 (2022)
By type: general cargo 1, other 3

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Berbera, Kismaayo


Somalia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalSomalia-Djibouti: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 23,364 (Ethiopia), 9,969 (Yemen) (2023)
IDPs: 3.864 million (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government's allied forces) (2022)

Illicit drugs


Turbopass


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