Statistical information Spain 2023Spain

Map of Spain | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Spain in the World

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Spain - Introduction 2023
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Background: Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy, and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently, Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting solid years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen but remains high, especially among youth. Spain is the euro-zone's fourth-largest economy. The country has faced increased domestic turmoil in recent years due to the independence movement in its restive Catalonia region.


Spain - Geography 2023
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Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total: 505,370 km²
Land: 498,980 km²
Water: 6,390 km²
Note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Comparative: almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries
Total: 1,952.7 km
Border countries: (5) Andorra 63 km; France 646 km; Gibraltar 1.2 km; Portugal 1,224 km; Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km; and Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
Note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north

Elevation
Highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 660 m

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 54.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 24.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 9.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 20.1% (2018 est.)
Forest: 36.8% (2018 est.)
Other: 9.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 37,593 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Tagus river source (shared with Portugal [m]) - 1,006
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 4.56 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 5.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 18.96 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 111.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, occasional flooding

Geography
Note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas; Spain's Canary Islands are one of four North Atlantic archipelagos that make up Macaronesia; the others are Azores (Portugal), Madeira (Portugal), and Cabo Verde


Spain - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: with the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; very dense settlement around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona: 47,222,613 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.12% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 20.7% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Spaniard(s)
Adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: Spanish 84.8%, Moroccan 1.7%, Romanian 1.2%, other 12.3% (2021 est.)
Note: data represent population by country of birth

Languages: Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan, <5,000 speakers); note - Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.


Religions: Roman Catholic 58.2%, atheist 16.2%, agnostic 10.8%, other 2.7%, non-believer 10.5%, unspecified 1.7% (2021 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 13.37% (male 3,226,491/female 3,087,271)
15-64 years: 66.13% (male 15,649,418/female 15,577,164)
65 years and over: 20.5% (2023 est.) (male 4,169,949/female 5,512,320)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 52.4
Youth dependency ratio: 21.9
Elderly dependency ratio: 30.2
Potential support ratio: 3.3 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 46.3 years (2023 est.)
Male: 45.2 years
Female: 47.4 years

Population growth rate: 0.12% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 7.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: with the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; very dense settlement around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona

Urbanization
Urban population: 81.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.24% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Note: data include Canary Islands, Ceuta, and Melilla

Major urban areas
Population: 6.751 million MADRID (capital), 5.687 million Barcelona, 838,000 Valencia (2023)

Environment
Current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas and drought are negatively impacting water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 9.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 244 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 36.94 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 31.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 3 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 82.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 80.1 years
Female: 85.6 years

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 62.1% (2018)
Note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 99.9% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 99.9% of population
Unimproved urban: 0.1% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 10.7% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 4.44 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 3 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 23.8% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 10.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 4.67 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 3.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 2.34 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 27.7% (2020 est.)
Male: 28.6% (2020 est.)
Female: 26.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.6%
Male: 99%
Female: 98.2% (2020)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 18 years
Male: 18 years
Female: 19 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 36.9% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 35.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 38.2%


Spain - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
Conventional short form: Spain
Local long form: Reino de Espana
Local short form: Espana
Etymology: derivation of the name "Espana" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term "span," related to the word "spy," meaning "to forge metals," so, "i-spn-ya" would mean "place where metals are forged"; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth

Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital
Name: Madrid
Geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Time zone note: Spain has two time zones, including the Canary Islands (UTC 0)
Etymology: the Romans named the original settlement "Matrice" after the river that ran through it; under Arab rule it became "Majerit," meaning "source of water"; in medieval Romance dialects (Mozarabic) it became "Matrit," which over time changed to "Madrid"

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]
Note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)

Dependent areas

Independence: 1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain

National holiday: National Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates the arrival of COLUMBUS in the Americas

Constitution
History: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one tenth of the members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds majority vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2011

Legal system: civil law system with regional variations

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain
Dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries
Residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)
Head of government: President of the Government of Spain (prime minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ PEREZ-CASTEJON (since 2 June 2018); Vice President Nadia Maria CALVINO Santamaria (since 12 July 2021)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes as president the leader of the majority party or coalition, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 10 November 2019 (next to be held in December 2023); vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Election results: Congress of Deputies vote - NA
Note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

Legislative branch
Description:
bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of:
Senate or Senado (265 seats; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 57 members indirectly elected by the legislatures of the autonomous communities; members serve 4-year terms)
Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a 3% threshold needed to gain a seat, and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)

Elections:
Senate - last held on 23 July 2023 (next to be held no later than July 2,027)
Congress of Deputies - last held on 23 July 2023 (next to be held no later than July 2,027)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 120, PSOE 72, ERC 7, PNV 4, other 5; composition (as of mid-2022) - men 161, women 104; percent of women 39.3%
Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33.1%, PSOE 31.7%, Vox 12.4%, Sumar 12.3%, ERC 1.7%, JuntsxCat 1.6%, EH-Bildu 1.4%, PNV 1.1% other 4.7%; seats by party - PP 136, PSOE 122, Vox 33, Sumar 31, ERC 7, JuntsxCat 7, EH-Bildu 6, PNV 5, other 3; men 196, women 154, percent of women 44%; note - overall General Courts percent of women 42%


Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room, with a president and 9 judges; the Penal Room, with a president and 14 judges; the Administrative Room, with a president and 32 judges; the Social Room, with a president and 12 judges; and the Military Room, with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, lawyers, and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
Subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance

Political parties and leaders:
Asturias Forum or FAC [Carmen MORIYON]
Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Arnaldo OTEGI] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
Canarian Coalition or CC [Fernando Clavijo BATLLE] (coalition of 5 parties)
Ciudadanos Party (Citizens Party) or Cs [Adrian Vazquez LAZARA]
Compromis - Compromise Coalition [Enric MORERA i Català]
Together for Catalonia or JuntsxCat [Albert BATET]
People's Party or PP [Albert Nunez FEIJOO]
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS]
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
Teruel Existe or TE [Tomas GUITARTE]
Unidas (Unite) or Sumar [Yolanda Diaz] (electoral coalition formed in March 2022) (formerly Unidas Podemos or UP)
Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
Vox or VOX [Santiago ABASCAL]


International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Santiago CABANAS Ansorena (since 17 September 2018)
In the us chancery: 2,375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 833-5,670
In the us email address and website:
emb.washington@maec.es

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Julissa REYNOSO (since 2 February 2022); note - also accredited to Andorra
From the us embassy: Calle de Serrano, 75, 28,006 Madrid
From the us mailing address: 8,500 Madrid Place, Washington DC 20,521-8,500
From the us telephone: [34] (91) 587-2,200
From the us FAX: [34] (91) 587-2,303
From the us email address and website:
askACS@state.gov
[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Spain: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
Note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre

National symbols: Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem
Name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
Lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown
Note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 50 (44 cultural, 4 natural, 2 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain (c); [link]


Spain - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income core EU economy; diversified trade portfolio; continental tourism locale; high government spending and debt; prone to political financing corruption; negatively impacted by COVID-19; important port and customs infrastructure; key clothing/footwear supplier

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.798 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.704 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.921 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
5.52% (2021 est.)
-11.33% (2020 est.)
1.98% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 57.7% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 18.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 20.6% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 34.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -31.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 2.6% (2017 est.)
Industry: 23.2% (2017 est.)
Services: 74.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 4.03% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 23.382 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
14.73% (2021 est.)
15.53% (2020 est.)
14.1% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 36.9% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 35.9%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 38.2%

Population below poverty line: 20.7% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 34.3 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.5%
Highest 10%: 24% (2011)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $546.084 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $585.979 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
141.22% of GDP (2020 est.)
108.99% of GDP (2019 est.)
104.74% of GDP (2018 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 13.58% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$13.445 billion (2021 est.)
$8.045 billion (2020 est.)
$29.247 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
3.09% (2021 est.)
-0.32% (2020 est.)
0.7% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$13.445 billion (2021 est.)
$8.045 billion (2020 est.)
$29.247 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$497.868 billion (2021 est.) ; note: data are in current year dollars
$393.774 billion (2020 est.) ; note: data are in current year dollars
$486.633 billion (2019 est.) ; note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: France 15%, Germany 11%, Italy 8%, Portugal 8%, United Kingdom 7%, United States 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, clothing and apparel (2019)

Imports:
$476.678 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$375.087 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$445.719 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 13%, France 11%, China 8%, Italy 7% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$92.201 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$81.288 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$74.731 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$2.338 trillion (2019 est.)
$2.366 trillion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)



Spain - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 233.267 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 14.649 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 17.928 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 115.837 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 32.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 21.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 8.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 22.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 13.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 2.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 47,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 1.328 million bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 1,364,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 150 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 1.361 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 562,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 464,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 57.99 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Consumption: 32.03 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Exports: 1.185 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Imports: 32.489 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Proven reserves: 2.549 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 280.624 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 16.743 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 191.299 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 72.582 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 122.673 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Spain - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 18,687,040 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2022 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 59,019,998 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 124 (2022 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations 

Internet country code: .es

Internet users
Total: 44.18 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 94% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 16,188,502 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2020 est.)


Spain - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.3% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1% of GDP (2021)
1% of GDP (2020)
0.9% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces: Spanish Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de España): Army (Ejército de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola; includes Marine Corps), Air and Space Force (Ejército del Aire y del Espacio), Emergency Response Unit (Unidad Militar de Emergencias); Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) (2023)
Note 1: the Civil Guard is a military force with police duties (including coast guard) under both the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of the Interior; it also responds to the needs of the Ministry of Finance
Note 2: the Emergency Response Unit was established in 2006 as a separate branch of service for responding to natural disasters and providing disaster relief both domestically and abroad; it has personnel from all the other military services
Note 3: the Spanish National Police ( Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, CNP) and the Civil Guard maintain internal security as well as migration and border enforcement under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior; the regional police under the authority of the Catalan and the Basque Country regional governments and municipal police throughout the country also support domestic security 
Note 4: the military has a Common Corps of four specialized corps that provide professional services to all the branches of the Armed Forces and the Civil Guard, including comptroller, legal, medical, and music services
Note 5: the Royal Guard is an independent regiment of the military dedicated to the protection of the King and members of the royal family; it is made up of members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Common Corps

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 24-36 month initial obligation; women allowed to serve in all branches, including combat units; no conscription (abolished 2001), but the Spanish Government retains the right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; 18-58 for the voluntary reserves (2023)
Note 1: as of 2023, women comprised about 13% of the military's full-time personnel
Note 2: the military recruits foreign nationals with residency in Spain from countries of its former empire, including Argentina, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); al-Qa’ida
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Spain - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 21 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 552
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 80,672,105 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1.117 billion (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: EC

Airports: 135 (2021)
With paved runways: 102
With paved runways civil airports: 28
With paved runways military airports: 6
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 13
With paved runways other airports: 55
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 33
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 102
Civil airports: 28
Military airports: 6
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 13
Other airports: 55
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 33
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 13 (2021)

Pipelines: 10,481 km gas, 358 km oil, 4,378 km refined products (2017)

Railways
Total: 15,489 km (2020) 9,953 km electrified

Roadways
Total: 683,175 km (2011)
Paved: 683,175 km (2011) (includes 16,205 km of expressways)

Waterways: 1,000 km (2012)

Merchant marine
Total: 494 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 35, oil tanker 23, other 435

Ports and terminals
Major seaports:
Atlantic Ocean: Bilbao, Huelva; Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)
Mediterranean Sea: Algeciras, Barcelona, Cartagena, Tarragona, Valencia

Container ports teus: Algeciras (4,799,497), Barcelona (3,531,762), Valencia (5,604,478) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, El Musel, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
River ports: Seville (Guadalquivir River)


Spain - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalSpain-Andorra: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 14,994 (Syria) (mid-year 2022); 438,400 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2022); 185,870 (Ukraine) (as of 3 December 2023)
Stateless persons: 6,489 (2022)
Note: 325,212 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals, including Canary Islands (January 2015-November 2023)

Illicit drugs: a primary European transit point for cocaine from South America and for hashish from Morocco; cocaine is shipped in raw or liquid form with mixed cargo to avoid detection or altered to escape detection Spanish chemists reconstitute it and distribute to Europe; minor domestic drug production; synthetic drugs, including ketamine, new psychoactive substances (NPS), and MDMA transit from Spain to the United States


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