Statistical information Taiwan 2023Taiwan

Map of Taiwan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Taiwan in the World
Taiwan in the World


Taiwan - Introduction 2023
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Background: First inhabited by Austronesian people, Taiwan became home to Han immigrants beginning in the late Ming Dynasty (17th century). In 1895, military defeat forced China's Qing Dynasty to cede Taiwan to Japan, which then governed Taiwan for 50 years. Taiwan came under Chinese Nationalist (Kuomintang, KMT) control after World War II. With the communist victory in the Chinese civil war in 1949, the Nationalist-controlled Republic of China government and 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and continued to claim to be the legitimate government for mainland China and Taiwan based on a 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. Until 1987, however, the Nationalist Government ruled Taiwan under a civil war martial law declaration dating to 1948. Beginning in the 1970s, Nationalist authorities gradually began to incorporate the native population into the governing structure beyond the local level. The democratization process expanded rapidly in the 1980s, leading to the then illegal founding of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan’s first opposition party, in 1986 and the lifting of martial law the following year. Taiwan held legislative elections in 1992, the first in over 40 years, and its first direct presidential election in 1996. In the 2000 presidential elections, Taiwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power with the KMT loss to the DPP and afterwards experienced two additional democratic transfers of power in 2008 and 2016. Throughout this period, the island prospered, became one of East Asia's economic "Tigers," and after 2000 became a major investor in mainland China as cross-Strait ties matured. The dominant political issues continue to be economic reform and growth as well as management of sensitive relations between Taiwan and China.

Taiwan - Geography 2023
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Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China

Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N, 121 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 35,980 km²
Land: 32,260 km²
Water: 3,720 km²
Note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Kinmen islands
Comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined

Land boundaries
Total: 0 km

Coastline: 1,566.3 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); persistent and extensive cloudiness all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west

Highest point: Yu Shan 3,952 m
Lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Mean elevation: 1,150 m

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, asbestos, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 22.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 16.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 5.8% (2018 est.)
Other: 77.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,820 km² (2012)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources: 67 cubic meters (2011)

Natural hazards: earthquakes; typhoons

Note: strategic location adjacent to both the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon Strait

Taiwan - People 2023
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Distribution: distribution exhibits a peripheral coastal settlement pattern, with the largest populations on the north and west coasts: 23,588,613 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.03% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 1.5% (2012 est.)

Noun: Taiwan (singular and plural)
Adjective: Taiwan (or Taiwanese)
Note: example - he or she is from Taiwan; they are from Taiwan

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese (including Holo, who compose approximately 70% of Taiwan's population, Hakka, and other groups originating in mainland China) more than 95%, indigenous Malayo-Polynesian peoples 2.3%
Note 1: there are 16 officially recognized indigenous groups: Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Hla'alua, Kanakaravu, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai, Saisiyat, Sakizaya, Seediq, Thao, Truku, Tsou, and Yami; Amis, Paiwan, and Atayal are the largest and account for roughly 70% of the indigenous population
Note 2: although not definitive, the majority of current genetic, archeological, and linguistic data support the theory that Taiwan is the ultimate source for the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia; the expansion (ca. 3,000 B.C. to A.D. 1200) took place via the Philippines and eastern Indonesia and reached Fiji and Tonga by about 900 B.C.; from there voyagers spread across the rest of the Pacific islands over the next two millennia

Languages: Mandarin (official), Min Nan, Hakka dialects, approximately 16 indigenous languages
Major-language samples:
世界概況  -  不可缺少的基本消息來源 (Mandarin)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Buddhist 35.3%, Taoist 33.2%, Christian 3.9%, folk religion (includes Confucian) approximately 10%, none or unspecified 18.2% (2005 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 12.22% (male 1,482,120/female 1,399,336)
15-64 years: 69.72% (male 8,211,973/female 8,233,667)
65 years and over: 18.07% (2023 est.) (male 1,922,365/female 2,339,152)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 40.2
Youth dependency ratio: 17.8
Elderly dependency ratio: 22.4
Potential support ratio: 4.5 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 44 years (2023 est.)
Male: 43 years
Female: 45 years

Population growth rate: 0.03% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 7.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: distribution exhibits a peripheral coastal settlement pattern, with the largest populations on the north and west coasts

Urban population: 80.1% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.65% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 4.504 million New Taipei City, 2.754 million TAIPEI (capital), 2.319 million Taoyuan, 1.553 million Kaohsiung, 1.369 million Taichung, 863,000 Tainan (2023)

Current issues: air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate
Total: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 81.4 years (2023 est.)
Male: 78.4 years
Female: 84.5 years

Total fertility rate: 1.09 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 75.2% (2016)
Note: percent of women aged 20-52

Drinking water source
Improved urban: NA
Improved rural: NA
Improved total: NA
Unimproved urban: NA
Unimproved rural: NA
Unimproved total: NA

Current health expenditure: NA

Physicians density: NA

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:

rural: NA

total: NA

Unimproved urban:

rural: NA

total: NA


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: NA

Education expenditures: NA

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.5%
Male: 99.7%
Female: 97.3% (2014)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Taiwan - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Taiwan
Local long form: none
Local short form: Taiwan
Former: Formosa
Etymology: "Tayowan" was the name of the coastal sandbank where the Dutch erected their colonial headquarters on the island in the 17th century; the former name "Formosa" means "beautiful" in Portuguese

Government type: semi-presidential republic

Name: Taipei
Geographic coordinates: 25 02 N, 121 31 E
Time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the Chinese meaning is "Northern Taiwan," reflecting the city's position in the far north of the island

Administrative divisions: includes main island of Taiwan plus smaller islands nearby and off coast of China's Fujian Province; Taiwan is divided into 13 counties (xian, singular and plural), 3 cities (shi, singular and plural), and 6 special municipalities directly under the jurisdiction of the Executive Yuan

Dependent areas


National holiday: Republic Day (National Day), 10 October (1911); note - celebrates the anniversary of the Chinese Revolution, also known as Double Ten (10-10) Day

History: previous 1912, 1931; latest adopted 25 December 1946, promulgated 1 January 1947, effective 25 December 1947
Amendments: proposed by at least one fourth of the Legislative Yuan membership; passage requires approval by at least three-fourths majority vote of at least three fourths of the Legislative Yuan membership and approval in a referendum by more than half of eligible voters; revised several times, last in 2005

Legal system: civil law system

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Taiwan
Dual citizenship recognized: yes, except that citizens of Taiwan are not recognized as dual citizens of the People's Republic of China
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal; note - in March 2022, the Legislative Yuan approved lowering the voting age to 18, but the change will require a constitutional amendment that must be submitted to a referendum

Executive branch
Chief of state: President TSAI Ing-wen (since 20 May 2016); Vice President LAI Ching-te (since 20 May 2020)
Head of government: Premier CHEN Chien-jen (President of the Executive Yuan) (since 25 January 2023); Vice Premier CHENG Wen-tsan (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) (since 25 January 2023)
Cabinet: Executive Yuan - ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier
Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 January 2020 (next to be held on 13 January 2024); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier
Election results:
2020: TSAI Ing-wen reelected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 57.1%, HAN Kuo-yu (KMT) 38.6%, James SOONG (PFP) 4.2%; note - TSAI is the first woman elected president of Taiwan

TSAI Ing-wen elected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 56.1%, Eric CHU (KMT) 31%, James SOONG (PFP) 12.8%

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Legislative Yuan (113 seats; 73 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 34 directly elected in a single island-wide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat aboriginal constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Elections: last held on 11 January 2020 (next to be held on 13 January 2024)
Election results: percent of vote by party - Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) 34.0%, Kuomintang (KMT) 33.4%, Taiwan People's Party (TPP) 11.2%, New Power Party (NPP) 7.5%; seats by party - DPP 61, KMT 38, TPP 5, NPP 3; composition as of early 2020 - men 64, women 48, percent of women 42.5%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 100 judges organized into 8 civil and 12 criminal divisions, each with a division chief justice and 4 associate justices); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 13 justices)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices appointed by the president; Constitutional Court justices appointed by the president, with approval of the Legislative Yuan; Supreme Court justices serve for life; Constitutional Court justices appointed for 8-year terms, with half the membership renewed every 4 years
Subordinate courts: high courts; district courts; hierarchy of administrative courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [LAI Ching-te]
Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [Eric CHU Chi-luan]
New Power Party or NPP [CHEN Jiau-hua]
People First Party or PFP [James SOONG]
Taiwan People's Party or TPP [KO Wen-je]
Taiwan Statebuilding Party or TSP [CHEN Yi-chi]

Note: the DPP and the KMT are the two major political parties; there are hundreds of registered minor parties

International organization participation:
ADB (Taipei, China), APEC (Chinese Taipei), BCIE, IOC, ITUC (NGOs), SICA (observer), WTO (Taipei, China);

note - separate customs territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: none; commercial and cultural relations with its citizens in the US are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO), a private nonprofit corporation that performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts, represented by HSIAO Bi-khim (since 20 July 2020); office: 4,201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,016; telephone: [1] (202) 895-1800; fax: [1] (202) 363-0999
In the us Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver (CO), Houston, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
From the us chief of mission: the US does not have an embassy in Taiwan; commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), a private nonprofit corporation that performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts; it is managed by Director Sandra OUDKIRK (since July 2021)
From the us mailing address: 4,170 AIT Taipei Place, Washington DC 20,521-4,170
From the us telephone: [886] 2-2,162-2000
From the us FAX: [886] 2-2,162-2,251
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Taiwan: red field with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays; the blue and white design of the canton (symbolizing the sun of progress) dates to 1895; it was later adopted as the flag of the Kuomintang Party; blue signifies liberty, justice, and democracy, red stands for fraternity, sacrifice, and nationalism, and white represents equality, frankness, and the people's livelihood; the 12 rays of the sun are those of the months and the twelve traditional Chinese hours (each ray equals two hours)
Note: similar to the flag of Samoa

National symbols: white, 12-rayed sun on blue field; national colors: blue, white, red

National anthem
Name: "Zhonghua Minguo guoge" (National Anthem of the Republic of China)
Lyrics/music: HU Han-min, TAI Chi-t'ao, and LIAO Chung-k'ai/CHENG Mao-yun
Note: adopted 1930; also the song of the Kuomintang Party; it is informally known as "San Min Chu I" or "San Min Zhu Yi" (Three Principles of the People); because of political pressure from China, "Guo Qi Ge" (National Banner Song) is used at international events rather than the official anthem of Taiwan; the "National Banner Song" has gained popularity in Taiwan and is commonly used during flag raisings

National heritage

Taiwan - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income East Asian economy; most technologically advanced computer microchip manufacturing; increasing Chinese interference threatens market capabilities; minimum wages rising; longstanding regional socioeconomic inequality

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.143 trillion (2019 est.)
$1.113 trillion (2018 est.)
$1.083 trillion (2017 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
2.71% (2019 est.)
2.75% (2018 est.)
3.31% (2017 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 53% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 14.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 20.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 65.2% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -52.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
Industry: 36% (2017 est.)
Services: 62.1% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: electronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (2017 est.)

Labor force: 11.498 million (2020 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.73% (2019 est.)
3.69% (2018 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line: 1.5% (2012 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 33.6 (2014)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 6.4% (2010)
Highest 10%: 40.3% (2010)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $94.943 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $105.833 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -0.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
35.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Note: data for central government

Taxes and other revenues: 16% (of GDP) (2017 est.)


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$65.173 billion (2019 est.)
$70.843 billion (2018 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
0.5% (2019 est.)
1.3% (2018 est.)
0.6% (2017 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$65.173 billion (2019 est.)
$70.843 billion (2018 est.)

$388.49 billion (2019 est.)
$383.484 billion (2018 est.)
$382.736 billion (2017 est.)

Partners: China 26%, United States 14%, Hong Kong 12%, Japan 7%, Singapore 7%, South Korea 5% (2019)
Commodities: integrated circuits, office machinery/parts, computers, refined petroleum, liquid crystal displays (2019)

$308.744 billion (2019 est.)
$305.428 billion (2018 est.)
$303.067 billion (2017 est.)

Partners: China 21%, Japan 16%, United States 11%, South Korea 6% (2019)
Commodities: integrated circuits, crude petroleum, photography equipment, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$456.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$439 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt external:
$189.684 billion (2019 est.)
$196.276 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
New Taiwan dollars (TWD) per US dollar - 28.211 (2020 est.)
30.472 (2019 est.)
30.8395 (2018 est.)
31.911 (2014 est.)
30.363 (2013 est.)

Taiwan - Energy 2023
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 269,570,325,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 57.738 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 82.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 11.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 2.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 2.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 800 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 998,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 886,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 2.4 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 924,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 349,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 418,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 150.589 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 22,002,493,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 22,172,507,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 6.23 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 279.206 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 141.445 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 92.207 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 45.554 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 160.669 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Taiwan - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 12.3 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 30.3 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 5 nationwide television networks operating roughly 22 TV stations; more than 300 satellite TV channels are available; about 60% of households utilize multi-channel cable TV; 99.9% of households subscribe to digital cable TV; national and regional radio networks with about 171 radio stations (2019)

Internet country code: .tw

Internet users
Total: 21.6 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 90% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 5,831,470 (2019 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2019 est.)

Taiwan - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
2.1% of GDP (2023 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2022)
2.1% of GDP (2021)
2.1% of GDP (2020)
1.8% of GDP (2019)

Military and security forces:
Taiwan Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force

Ocean Affairs Council: Coast Guard Administration (CGA)

Ministry of Interior: National Police (2023)

Note: the CGA is a law enforcement organization with homeland security functions during peacetime and national defense missions during wartime; it was established in 2000 from the integration of the Coast Guard Command (formerly under the Ministry of Defense), the Marine Police Bureau (formerly under the National Police), and several cutters from the Taiwan Directorate General of Customs (Ministry of Finance)

Military service age and obligation: starting with those born in 1994, men 18-36 years of age may volunteer or must complete 4 months of compulsory military service; civil service can be substituted for military service in some cases; men born before December 1993 are required to complete compulsory service for 12 months (military or civil); men are subject to training recalls up to four times for periods not to exceed 20 days for 8 years after discharge; women may enlist but are restricted to noncombat roles in most cases; as part of its transition to an all-volunteer military, the last cohort of 12-month military conscripts completed their service obligations in December 2018 (2023)
Note 1: as of 2023, women made up about 15% of the active-duty military

Terrorist groups

Taiwan - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 7 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 216

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: B

Airports: 37 (2021)
With paved runways: 35
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 2
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 35
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 2
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 31 (2021)

Pipelines: 25 km condensate, 2,200 km gas, 13,500 km oil (2018)

Total: 1,613.1 km (2018)
Standard gauge: standard gauge: 345 km (2018) 1.435-m gauge (345 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 1,118.1 km (2018) 1.067-m gauge (793.9 km electrified)
0.762-m gauge:
150 km
note: the 0.762-gauge track belongs to three entities: the Forestry Bureau, Taiwan Cement, and TaiPower

Total: 43,206 km (2017)
Paved: 42,793 km (2017) (includes 1,348 km of highways and 737 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 413 km (2017)


Merchant marine
Total: 450 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 34, container ship 53, general cargo 58, oil tanker 34, other 271

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Keelung (Chi-lung), Kaohsiung, Hualian, Taichung
Container ports teus: Kaohsiung (9,864,448), Taichung (1,979,222), Taipei (2,091,132) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Yung An (Kaohsiung), Taichung

Taiwan - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalTaiwan-Brunei-China-Malaysia-Philippines-Vietnam: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea that are thought to have large oil and natural gas reserves, as well as being located amidst prime fishing grounds and busy commercial shipping traffic; the Spratly Islands also are in a strategic position for establishing a military presence to monitor activity in the South China Sea; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: major source of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics


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