Statistical information Tajikistan 2023Tajikistan

Map of Tajikistan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Tajikistan in the World
Tajikistan in the World

World Nomads

Tajikistan - Introduction 2023
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Background: The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas (known as "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first established as an autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924, but in 1929 the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd Province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from 1992 to 1997.

Tajikistan - Geography 2023
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Location: Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map referenceAsia

Total: 144,100 km²
Land: 141,510 km²
Water: 2,590 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries
Total: 4,130 km
Border countries: (4) Afghanistan 1,357 km; China 477 km; Kyrgyzstan 984 km; Uzbekistan 1,312 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: mountainous region dominated by the Alay Mountains in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofirnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Highest point: Qullai Somoniyon 7,495 m
Lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
Mean elevation: 3,186 m

Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 34.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 6.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 27.7% (2018 est.)
Forest: 2.9% (2018 est.)
Other: 62.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,690 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river source (shared with Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan [m]) - 2,620 km
note: – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²: Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Tarim Basin (1,152,448 km²), (Aral Sea Basin) Amu Darya (534,739 km²), Syr Darya (782,617 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 910 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.61 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 7.38 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 21.91 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes; floods

Note: landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

Tajikistan - People 2023
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Distribution: the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west: 9,245,937 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 1.94% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 26.3% (2019 est.)

Noun: Tajikistani(s)
Adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups: Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)

Languages: Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz 0.8%, Russian 0.5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)
Major-language samples:
Китоби Фактҳои Ҷаҳонӣ, манбаи бебадали маълумоти асосӣ (Tajik)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Note: Russian widely used in government and business

Religions: Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile: Tajikistan has a youthful age structure with almost 50% of the population under the age of 25. As a Soviet republic, Tajikistan had the highest fertility rate in the Soviet Union. The total fertility rate - the average number of births per woman - was highest in the mid-1970s, when it reached 6.3 In an effort to expand populations to meet economic goals, the Soviets provided resources that made large families affordable. The fertility rate decreased to 5 by the time of independence in 1991 and continued to decline thereafter. In 1996, the Tajik Government discontinued subsidies for large families and having several children became too expensive. The loss of subsidies, the 5-year civil war that followed independence, and other factors caused fertility to continue to fall steadily, but it remains above replacement level at 2.5. The availability of healthcare providers and family planning services is limited, contributing to couples having more children than they would like. As of 2017, 21% of women were using contraceptives.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 29.98% (male 1,411,335/female 1,360,882)
15-64 years: 65.84% (male 3,025,782/female 3,061,836)
65 years and over: 4.18% (2023 est.) (male 159,728/female 226,374)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 65.9
Youth dependency ratio: 60.4
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
Potential support ratio: 18.1 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 22.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 22.3 years
Female: 23.2 years

Population growth rate: 1.94% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 26.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west

Urban population: 28.2% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 2.73% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 987,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2023)

Current issues: areas of high air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of untreated industrial waste and sewage; poor management of water resources; soil erosion; increasing levels of soil salinity
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 53.65 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 5.31 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 4.87 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 23.2 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 17 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 23.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 26 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 20.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.1 years (2023 est.)
Male: 69.2 years
Female: 73.1 years

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 29.3% (2017)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 96.5% of population
Improved rural: 79.9% of population
Improved total: 84.4% of population
Unimproved urban: 3.5% of population
Unimproved rural: 20.1% of population
Unimproved total: 15.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 8.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.72 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density: 4.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
98.9% of population

rural: 99.6% of population

total: 99.4% of population

Unimproved urban:
1.1% of population

rural: 0.4% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 14.2% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 0.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.45 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 7.6% (2017)

Education expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.8%
Male: 99.8%
Female: 99.7% (2015)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 11 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 11 years (2013)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 17.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 14.4%

Tajikistan - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
Conventional short form: Tajikistan
Local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
Local short form: Tojikiston
Former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Dushanbe
Geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
Time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Bokhtar), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
Note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)

History: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
Amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval of the president or approval by at least two-thirds majority of the Assembly of Representatives; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; constitutional articles, including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature, cannot be amended; amended 1999, 2003, 2016

Legal system: civil law system

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly Chairman since 19 November 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (two-term limit); however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 11 October 2020 (next to be held in 2,027); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results:
2020: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 92.1%, Rustam LATIFZODA (APT) 3.1%, and other 4.8%

2013: Emomali RAHMOND reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMOND (PDPT) 84%, Ismoil TALBAKOV CPT) 5%, other 11%

Legislative branch
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2,025)
Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2,025)

Election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition as of mid-2,202 (31 members) - men 23, women 8, percent of women 25.8%
Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 50.4%, PERT 16.6%, APT 16.5%, SPT 5.2%, DPT 5.1%, CPT 3.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - PDPT 47, APT 7, PERT 5, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1; composition as of mid 2022 - men 46, women 17, percent of women 27%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 26.6%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, family, criminal, administrative offense, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, deputy chairman, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no term limits, but the last appointment must occur before the age of 65
Subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Rustam RAHMATZODA]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT (vacant)
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFORZODA]

International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Farrukh HAMRALIZODA (since 17 February 2021)
In the us chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 223-6,090
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 223-6,091
In the us email address and website:;


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Manuel P. MICALLER JR (since 9 March 2023)
From the us embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue (Zarafshon district), Dushanbe 734,019
From the us mailing address: 7,090 Dushanbe Place, Washington DC 20,521-7,090
From the us telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
From the us FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Tajikistan: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness

National symbols: crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green

National anthem
Name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
Lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
Note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 3 (2 cultural, 1 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Proto-urban Site of Sarazm (c); Tajik National Park (Mountains of the Pamirs) (n); Silk Roads: Zarafshan-Karakum Corridor (c)

Tajikistan - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: lower middle-income Central Asian economy; key gold, cotton, and aluminum exporter; declining poverty; sustained high growth; very limited private sector; substantial illicit drug trade; significant remittances; environmentally fragile

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$38.058 billion (2021 est.)
$34.851 billion (2020 est.)
$33.382 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
9.2% (2021 est.)
4.4% (2020 est.)
7.4% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 98.4% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 2.5% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 10.7% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -36.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)
Industry: 25.5% (2017 est.)
Services: 45.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil

Industrial production growth rate: 22.04% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
7.75% (2021 est.)
7.58% (2020 est.)
7.06% (2019 est.)

Note: official rate; actual unemployment is much higher

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 17.4% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 19.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 14.4%

Population below poverty line: 26.3% (2019 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 34 (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: (2009 est.) NA
Highest 10%: (2009 est.) NA

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $2.222 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $2.393 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
50.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
42% of GDP (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 31.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

From forest resources: 1.12% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.54% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$734.735 million (2021 est.)
$335.906 million (2020 est.)
-$185.295 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
7.7% (2019 est.)
3.9% (2018 est.)
7.3% (2017 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$734.735 million (2021 est.)
$335.906 million (2020 est.)
-$185.295 million (2019 est.)

$2.161 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.409 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.243 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Turkey 24%, Switzerland 22%, Uzbekistan 16%, Kazakhstan 12%, China 10% (2019)
Commodities: gold, aluminum, cotton, zinc, antimony, lead (2019)

$4.258 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.125 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.409 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 40%, Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)
Commodities: refined petroleum, wheat, natural gas, bauxite, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.499 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$2.238 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.466 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$6.47 billion (2019 est.)
$5.849 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 11.309 (2021 est.)
10.322 (2020 est.)
9.53 (2019 est.)
9.151 (2018 est.)
8.55 (2017 est.)

Tajikistan - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 99.5% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 98.9% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 99.8% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 15.071 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 3.175 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 281 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 7.114 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 8.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 91.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 300 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 26,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 900 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 12 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 172 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 22,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 18.208 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 157.611 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 139.375 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 5.663 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 7.643 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 4.362 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 2.971 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 309,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 27.651 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Tajikistan - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 502,000 (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 11.584 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)

Internet country code: .tj

Internet users
Total: 3,009,054 (2022 est.)
Percent of population: 30.4% (2022 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 6,000 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.1 (2020 est.)

Tajikistan - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.2% of GDP (2021 est.)
1% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan: Land Forces, Mobile Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Troops (reserves for Armed Forces in wartime), police

State Committee on National Security: Border Guard Forces (2023)

Note: the National Guard, formerly the Presidential Guard, is tasked with ensuring public safety and security, similar to the tasks of the Internal Troops; it also takes part in ceremonial duties

Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory (men only) or voluntary (men and women) military service; 24-month conscript service obligation; in August 2021, the Tajik Government began allowing men to pay a fee in order to avoid conscription (2023)

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)
Note 1: US-designated foreign terrorist groups such as the Islamic Jihad Union, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan Province have operated in the area where the Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Tajik borders converge and ill-defined and porous borders allow for the relatively free movement of people and illicit goods |note 2: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Tajikistan - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 492,320 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.34 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: EY

Airports: 24 (2021)
With paved runways: 17
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 7
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 17
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 7
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


Pipelines: 549 km gas, 38 km oil (2013)

Total: 680 km (2014)
Broad gauge: 680 km (2014) 1.520-m gauge

Total: 30,000 km (2018)

Waterways: 200 km (2011) (along Vakhsh River)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Tajikistan - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalTajikistan-Afghanistan: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 6,775 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2021)
Stateless persons: 4,898 (2022)

Illicit drugs: Tajikistan is a primary transit country along the “Northern Route” for Afghanistan-sourced opiates and cannabis for the Russian and Eastern European markets and beyond; minimal domestic recreational drug use though it is increasing


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