Statistical information Thailand 2023Thailand

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Thailand in the World
Thailand in the World


Thailand - Introduction 2023
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Background: Two unified Thai kingdoms emerged in the mid-13th century. The Sukhothai, located in the south-central plains, gained its independence from the Khmer Empire to the east. By the late 13th century, Sukhothai’s territory extended into present-day Burma and Laos. Sukhothai lasted until the mid-15th century. The Thai Lan Na Kingdom was established in the north with its capital at Chang Mai. Lan Na was conquered by the Burmese in the 16th century. The Ayutthaya Kingdom (14th-18th centuries) succeeded the Sukhothai and would become known as the Siamese Kingdom. During the Ayutthaya period, the Thai/Siamese peoples consolidated their hold on what is present-day central and north-central Thailand. Following a military defeat at the hands of the Burmese in 1767, the Siamese Kingdom rose to new heights under the military ruler TAKSIN, who defeated the Burmese occupiers and expanded the kingdom’s territory into modern-day northern Thailand (formerly the Lan Na Kingdom), Cambodia, Laos, and the Malay Peninsula. The kingdom fought off additional Burmese invasions and raids in the late 1700s and early 1800s. In the mid-1800s, Western pressure led to Siam signing trade treaties that reduced the country’s sovereignty and independence. In the 1890s and 1900s, the British and French forced the kingdom to cede Cambodian, Laotian, and Malay territories that had been under Siamese control.

Thailand - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 100 00 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Total: 513,120 km²
Land: 510,890 km²
Water: 2,230 km²
Comparative: about three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries
Total: 5,673 km
Border countries: (4) Burma 2,416 km; Cambodia 817 km; Laos 1,845 km; Malaysia 595 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere

Highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,565 m
Lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
Mean elevation: 287 m

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 41.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 30.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 8.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 1.6% (2018 est.)
Forest: 37.2% (2018 est.)
Other: 21.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 64,150 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Mae Nam Khong (Mekong) (shared with China [s], Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam [m]) - 4,350 km; Salween (shared with China [s] and Burma [m]) - 3,060 km; Mun - 1,162 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²:
Indian Ocean drainage: Salween (271,914 km²)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Mekong (805,604 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 2.74 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 2.78 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 51.79 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 438.61 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts

Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore; ideas for the construction of a canal across the Kra Isthmus that would create a bypass to the Strait of Malacca and shorten shipping times around Asia continue to be discussed

Thailand - People 2023
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Distribution: highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly north and northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country: 69,794,997 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.2% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 9.9% (2018 est.)

Noun: Thai (singular and plural)
Adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups: Thai 97.5%, Burmese 1.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified <0.1% (2015 est.)
Note: data represent population by nationality

Languages: Thai (official) only 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages 2.9% (includes Malay, Burmese); note - data represent population by language(s) spoken at home; English is a secondary language of the elite (2010 est.)
Major-language samples:
สารานุกรมโลก - แหล่งข้อมูลพื้นฐานที่สำคัญ (Thai)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions: Buddhist 92.5%, Muslim 5.4%, Christian 1.2%, other 0.9% (includes animist, Confucian, Hindu, Jewish, Sikh, and Taoist) (2021 est.)

Demographic profile: Thailand has experienced a substantial fertility decline since the 1960s largely due to the nationwide success of its voluntary family planning program. In just one generation, the total fertility rate (TFR) shrank from 6.5 children per woman in the 1960s to below the replacement level of 2.1 in the late 1980s. Reduced fertility occurred among all segments of the Thai population, despite disparities between urban and rural areas in terms of income, education, and access to public services. The country’s “reproductive revolution” gained momentum in the 1970s as a result of the government’s launch of an official population policy to reduce population growth, the introduction of new forms of birth control, and the assistance of foreign non-government organizations. Contraceptive use rapidly increased as new ways were developed to deliver family planning services to Thailand’s then overwhelmingly rural population. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased from just 14% in 1970 to 58% in 1981 and has remained about 80% since 2000. 
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 16% (male 5,720,842/female 5,443,981)
15-64 years: 69.53% (male 23,797,302/female 24,734,505)
65 years and over: 14.47% (2023 est.) (male 4,500,808/female 5,597,559)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 43.5
Youth dependency ratio: 22.7
Elderly dependency ratio: 18.4
Potential support ratio: 4.8 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 41 years (2023 est.)
Male: 39.8 years
Female: 42.2 years

Population growth rate: 0.2% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: highest population density is found in and around Bangkok; significant population clusters found througout large parts of the country, particularly north and northeast of Bangkok and in the extreme southern region of the country

Urban population: 53.6% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 11.070 million BANGKOK (capital), 1.454 Chon Buri, 1.359 million Samut Prakan, 1.213 million Chiang Mai, 1.005 million Songkla, 1.001 million Nothaburi (2023)

Current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; water scarcity; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting; hazardous waste disposal
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 24.64 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 283.76 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 86.98 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 23.3 years (2009 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 29 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.9 years (2023 est.)
Male: 74.9 years
Female: 81.1 years

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73% (2019)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 4.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 0.95 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 10% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 6.86 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 4.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 22.1% (2020 est.)
Male: 41.3% (2020 est.)
Female: 2.9% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 7.7% (2019)

Education expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 94.1%
Male: 95.5%
Female: 92.8% (2021)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 15 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 16 years (2016)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 6.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.1%

Thailand - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
Conventional short form: Thailand
Local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
Local short form: Prathet Thai
Former: Siam
Etymology: Land of the Tai [People]"; the meaning of "tai" is uncertain, but may originally have meant "human beings," "people," or "free people''

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Name: Bangkok
Geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
Time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Bangkok was likely originally a colloquial name, but one that was widely adopted by foreign visitors; the name may derive from bang ko, where bang is the Thai word for "village on a stream" and ko means "island," both referencing the area's landscape, which was carved by rivers and canals; alternatively, the name may come from bang makok, where makok is the name of the Java plum, a plant bearing olive-like fruit; this possibility is supported by the former name of Wat Arun, a historic temple in the area, that used to be called Wat Makok;

Krung Thep Maha Nakhon, the city's Thai name, means "City of Angels, Great City" or simply "Great City of Angels" and is a shortening of the full ceremonial name: Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit; translated the meaning is: "City of angels, great city of immortals, magnificent city of the nine gems, seat of the king, city of royal palaces, home of gods incarnate, erected by Vishvakarman at Indra's behest"; it holds the world's record as the longest place name (169 letters); Krung Thep is used colloquially

Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buri Ram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Saraburi, Satun, Sing Buri, Si Sa Ket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of King WACHIRALONGKON, 28 July (1952)

History: many previous; latest drafted and presented 29 March 2016, approved by referendum 7 August 2016, signed into law by the king on 6 April 2017
Amendments: amendments require a majority vote in a joint session of the House and Senate and further require at least one fifth of opposition House members and one third of the Senate vote in favor; a national referendum is additionally required for certain amendments; all amendments require signature by the king; Thailand's 2017 constitution was amended in November 2021 to increase the number of constituency members of parliament (MPs) from 350 to 400, reduce the number of party-list MPs from 150 to 100, and change the election to a two-ballot system

Legal system: civil law system with common law influences

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand
Dual citizenship recognized: no
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON, also spelled Vajiralongkorn (since 1 December 2016)
Head of government: Prime Minister SETTHA Thawisin (since 5 September 2023)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king
Elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister candidate approved by the House of Representatives and Senate and appointed by the king; starting in 2024, approval of prime minister needed only by the House of Representatives

Legislative branch
bicameral National Assembly or Ratthasapha consists of:
Senate or Wuthisapha (currently 250 seats; members appointed by the National Council for Peace and Order to serve 5-year terms; the Senate appointed in 2024 will consist of 200 members elected from various groups of professionals for a 5-year term)
House of Representatives or Saphaphuthan Ratsadon (500 seats; 400 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 100 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Senate - last selections held on 14 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

House of Representatives - last held on 14 May 2023 (next to be held in May 2,027)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 223, women 26, percent of women 10.4%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - MFP 36.2%, PTP 27.7%, UTN 11.9%, PJT 2.9%, DP 2.3%, PPRP 1.4%, PCC 1.5%, other 16%; seats by party - MFP 152, PTP 141, PJT 70, PPRP 41, UTN 36, DP 24, PCC 9, CTP 10, Thai Sang Thai 6, other 11; composition - 405 men, 94 women, percent women 18.8%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party in 2019 election- PPRP 23.7%, PTP 22.2%, FFP* 17.8%, DP 11.1%, PJT 10.5%, TLP 2.3%, CTP 2.2%, NEP 1.4%, PCC 1.4%, ACT 1.2%, PCP 1.2%, other 5.1%; seats by party - PTP 136, PPRP 116, FFP 81, DP 53, PJT 51, CTP 10, TLP 10, PCC 7, PCP 5, NEP 6, ACT 5, other 20; composition (489 members as of mid-2022) - men 412, women 77, percent of women 15.8%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president, 6 vice presidents, 60-70 judges, and organized into 10 divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judge term determined by the monarch; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court, and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judges serve for life
Subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts

Political parties and leaders:
Action Coalition Party or ACP [ANEK Laothammathast]
Bhumjaithai Party (aka Phumchai Thai Party or PJT; aka Thai Pride Party) or BJT [ANUTIN Chanwirakun]
Chat Phatthana Kla arty (National Development Party) [KON Chatikawanit]
Chat Thai Phatthana Party (Thai Nation Development Party) or CTP [VARAWUT Silpa-archa]
New Economics Party or NEP [MANUN Siwaphiromrat]
Move Forward Party or MFP [CHAITHAWAT Tulathon] 
Palang Pracharat Party (People's State Power Party) or PPRP [PRAWIT Wongsuwan] 
Prachachat Party or PCC [WAN Muhamad NOOR Matha]
Prachathipat Party (Democrat Party) or DP [CHALERMCHAI Sri-on]
Puea Chat Party (For Nation Party) or PCP [SARUNWUT Sarunket]
Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [Chusak SIRINIL]
Puea Tham Party (For Dharma Party) [NALINI Thawisin]
Seri Ruam Thai Party (Thai Liberal Party or TLP) [SERIPHISUT Temiyawet]
Thai Civilized Party or TCL [MONGKOLKIT Suksintharanon]
Thai Local Power Party or TLP [CHATCHAWAI Kong-udom]
Thai People Power Party or TLPT [NIKHOM Bunwiset]
Thai Sang Thai Party [SUDARAT Keyuraphan]
United Thai Nation (Ruam Thai Sang Chat) or UTN [PHIRAPHAN Saliratthawiphak]

International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Tanee SANGRAT (since 12 December 2022)
In the us chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 944-3,600
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 944-3,611
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 7 October 2022)
From the us embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10,330
From the us mailing address: 7,200 Bangkok Place, Washington DC 20,521-7,200
From the us telephone: [66] 2-205-4,000
From the us FAX: [66] 2-205-4,103
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life, white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism, and blue stands for the monarchy
Note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed

National symbols: garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem
Name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand)
Note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sanlasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 6 (3 cultural, 3 natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic City of Ayutthaya (c); Historic Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns (c); Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries (n); Ban Chiang Archaeological Site (c); Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex (n); Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex (n)

Thailand - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income Southeast Asian economy; substantial infrastructure; major electronics, food, and automobile parts exporter; globally used currency; extremely low unemployment, even amid COVID-19; ongoing Thailand 4.0 economic development

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$1.223 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.204 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.284 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
1.53% (2021 est.)
-6.2% (2020 est.)
2.15% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 48.8% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 16.4% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -0.4% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 68.2% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -54.6% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.)
Industry: 36.2% (2017 est.)
Services: 55.6% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: 3.34% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 40.213 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
1.42% (2021 est.)
1.1% (2020 est.)
0.72% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 7% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 6.2%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.1%

Population below poverty line: 9.9% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 35 (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.8%
Highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $104.689 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $128.581 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
50.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
40.13% of GDP (2019 est.)
39.25% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Taxes and other revenues: 14.48% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 0.34% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

Current account balance:
-$10.345 billion (2021 est.)
$21.058 billion (2020 est.)
$38.256 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
1.23% (2021 est.)
-0.85% (2020 est.)
0.71% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$10.345 billion (2021 est.)
$21.058 billion (2020 est.)
$38.256 billion (2019 est.)

$296.002 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$257.981 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$323.878 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: United States 16%, China 13%, Japan 9%, Vietnam 4%, Australia 4% (2021)
Commodities: office machinery/parts, cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, delivery trucks, refined petroleum, rubber (2021)

$295.78 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$232.039 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$272.831 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 22%, Japan 14%, United States 7%, Malaysia 6% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, integrated circuits, natural gas, vehicle parts, gold (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$246.025 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$258.104 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$224.356 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$167.89 billion (2019 est.)
$158.964 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
baht per US dollar - 31.977 (2021 est.)
31.294 (2020 est.)
31.048 (2019 est.)
32.31 (2018 est.)
33.94 (2017 est.)

Thailand - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 190,569,262,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 2,617,583,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 29,550,571,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 53.13 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 83.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 2.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 9.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 438,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 1,284,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 28,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 979,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 252.8 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 1.328 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 278,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 134,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 38,420,517,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 54,802,466,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 14,944,842,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 138.243 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 305.273 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 58.78 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 146.172 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 100.321 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 76.714 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Thailand - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 4.368 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2022 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 126.414 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 176 (2022 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 26 digital TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally, 6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the stations are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2017)

Internet country code: .th

Internet users
Total: 61.2 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 85% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 11,478,265 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2020 est.)

Thailand - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021)
1.4% of GDP (2020)
1.3% of GDP (2019)
1.3% of GDP (2018)

Military and security forces:
Royal Thai Armed Forces (Kongthap Thai, RTARF): Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN; includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Akaat Thai, RTAF)

Office of the Prime Minister: Royal Thai Police (2023)

Note 1: the Thai Internal Security Operations Command (ISOC) oversees counter-insurgency operations, as well as countering terrorism, narcotics and weapons trafficking, and other internal security duties; it is primarily run by the Army
Note 2: official paramilitary forces in Thailand include the Thai Rangers (Thahan Phran or "Hunter Soldiers") under the Army; the Paramilitary Marines under the Navy; the Border Patrol Police (BPP) under the Royal Thai Police; the Volunteer Defense Corps (VDC or O So) and National Defense Volunteers (NDV), both under the Ministry of Interior; there are also several government-backed volunteer militias created to provide village security against insurgents in the deep south or to assist the ISOC

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 21 years of age for compulsory military service for men; men register at 18 years of age; volunteer service obligation may be as short as 6 or 12 months, depending on educational qualifications; conscript service obligation also varies by educational qualifications, but is typically 24 months (2023)
Note 1: serving in the armed forces is a national duty of all Thai citizens; conscription was introduced in 1905; it includes women, however, only men over the age of 21 who have not gone through reserve training are conscripted; conscripts are chosen by lottery (on draft day, eligible draftees can request volunteer service, or they may choose to stay for the conscription lottery); approximately 75-100,000 men are drafted for military service each year and conscripts reportedly comprise as much as 50% of the armed forces
Note 2: as of 2020, women comprised about 8% of active-duty military personnel

Terrorist groups

Thailand - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 15 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 283
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 76,053,042 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,666,260,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: HS

Airports: 101 (2021)
With paved runways: 63
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 38
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 63
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 38
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 7 (2021)

Pipelines: 2 km condensate, 5,900 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1 km oil, 1,097 km refined products (2013)

Total: 4,127 km (2017)
Standard gauge: 84 km (2017) 1.435-m gauge (84 km electrified)
Narrow gauge: 4,043 km (2017) 1.000-m gauge

Total: 180,053 km (2006) (includes 450 km of expressways)

Waterways: 4,000 km (2011) (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m)

Merchant marine
Total: 829 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 26, container ship 28, general cargo 91, oil tanker 246, other 438

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
Container ports teus: Laem Chabang (8,335,384) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Map Ta Phut

Thailand - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalThailand-Burma: in 2016, Thailand expressed its interest in investing in Burma’s Hatgyi Dam project on the Salween River near the Thai-Burma border; the dam has the potential to supply electricity and water during the drought season; approximately 100,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval, and economic stagnation in Burma live in nine remote camps in Thailand near the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 91,339 (Burma) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2023)
IDPs: 41,000 (2022)
Stateless persons: 566,900 (2022) (estimate represents stateless persons registered with the Thai Government; actual number may be as high as 3.5 million); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving
Note: Thai nationality was granted to more than 23,000 stateless persons between 2012 and 2016 and more than 18,000 between 2018 and 2021; in 2016, the Government of Thailand approved changes to its citizenship laws that could make 80,000 stateless persons eligible for citizenship, as part of its effort to achieve zero statelessness by 2024 (2021)

Illicit drugs: not a cultivator or producer of significant quantities of opiates, methamphetamine, or other illicit drugs; not a significant source or transit country for drugs entering the United States; drugs smuggled through Thailand heading for Indo-Pacific region markets; large influx of methamphetamine and heroin from neighboring Burma to other markets, but also consumed domestically, most of which transits through Thailand to other markets, but is also consumed domestically; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics

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