Statistical information Turkey 2023Turkey

Map of Turkey | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Turkey - Introduction 2023
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Background: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. An unsuccessful coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces.


Turkey - Geography 2023
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Location: Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map referenceMiddle East

Area
Total: 783,562 km²
Land: 769,632 km²
Water: 13,930 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 2,816 km
Border countries: (8) Armenia 311 km; Azerbaijan 17 km; Bulgaria 223 km; Georgia 273 km; Greece 192 km; Iran 534 km; Iraq 367 km; Syria 899 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea
Exclusive economic zone:
in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea


Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Elevation
Highest point: Mount Ararat 5,137 m
Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Mean elevation: 1,132 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 49.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 26.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 4% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 19% (2018 est.)
Forest: 14.9% (2018 est.)
Other: 35.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 52,150 km² (2020)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Euphrates river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 3,596 km; Tigris river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 1,950 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth


Major watersheds area km²: Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 6.91 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 1.03 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 54.27 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 211.6 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van; landslides; flooding

Geography
Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; the 3% of Turkish territory north of the Straits lies in Europe and goes by the names of European Turkey, Eastern Thrace, or Turkish Thrace; the 97% of the country in Asia is referred to as Anatolia; Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus, is the only metropolis in the world located on two continents; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country


Turkey - People 2023
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Population
Distribution: the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast: 83,593,483 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.64% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Turk(s)
Adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 6-11% (2016 est.)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
Major-language samples:
Gheos World Guide, temel bilgi edinmek için vazgeçilmez bir kaynak. (Turkish)
ڕاستییەکانی جیهان، باشترین سەرچاوەیە بۆ زانیارییە بنەڕەتییەکان (Kurdish)


Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 22.12% (male 9,459,277/female 9,029,296)
15-64 years: 68.58% (male 29,023,477/female 28,301,263)
65 years and over: 9.31% (2023 est.) (male 3,512,598/female 4,267,572)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 49.1
Youth dependency ratio: 34.5
Elderly dependency ratio: 12.3
Potential support ratio: 8.1 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 33.6 years (2023 est.)
Male: 33 years
Female: 34.1 years

Population growth rate: 0.64% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast

Urbanization
Urban population: 77.5% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 1.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 15.848 million Istanbul, 5.397 million ANKARA (capital), 3.088 million Izmir, 2.086 million Bursa, 1.836 million Adana, 1.805 million Gaziantep (2023)

Environment
Current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; land degradation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic; conservation of biodiversity
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Environmental Modification

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 23.25 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 372.72 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 57.53 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 26.6 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 17 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.5 years (2023 est.)
Male: 74.1 years
Female: 78.9 years

Total fertility rate: 1.91 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 69.8% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 99.1% of population
Improved rural: 98.7% of population
Improved total: 99% of population
Unimproved urban: 0.9% of population
Unimproved rural: 1.3% of population
Unimproved total: 1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 4.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.93 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density: 2.9 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.8% of population

rural: 98.7% of population

total: 99.6% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.2% of population

rural: 1.3% of population

total: 0.4% of population (2020 est.)


Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 32.1% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 1.18 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 0.67 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.35 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 30.7% (2020 est.)
Male: 42.1% (2020 est.)
Female: 19.2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.5% (2018/19)

Education expenditures: 3.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96.7%
Male: 99.1%
Female: 94.4% (2019)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 18 years
Male: 19 years
Female: 18 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 24.3% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 21.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 29.9%


Turkey - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Turkey Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Turkey
Etymology: the name means "Land of the Turks"
Note: Turkiye is an approved English short-form name for Turkey

Government type: presidential republic

Capital
Name: Ankara
Geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: Ankara has been linked with a second millennium B.C. Hittite cult center of Ankuwash, although this connection is uncertain; in classical and medieval times, the city was known as Ankyra (meaning "anchor" in Greek and reflecting the city's position as a junction for multiple trade and military routes); by about the 13th century the city began to be referred to as Angora; following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the city's name became Ankara

Administrative divisions: 81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed, succeeding the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Republic Day, 29 October (1923)

Constitution
History: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982
Amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one third of Grand National Assembly (GNA) of Turkey (TBMM) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary TBMM session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request TBMM reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority TBMM vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017

Legal system: civil law system based on various European legal systems, notably the Swiss civil code

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship
Citizenship by birth: no
Citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey
Dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2018); Vice President Cevdet YILMAZ (since 3 June 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2018; chief of state since 28 August 2014)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 May 2023 with a runoff on 28 May 2023 (next to be held in 2,028)
Election results:

2023:
Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected in second round - Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.2%, Kemal KILICDAROGLU (CHP) 47.8%

2018:
Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in first round - Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.6%, Muharrem INCE (CHP) 30.6%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 8.4%, Meral AKSENER (IYI) 7.3%, other 1.1%


Legislative branch
Description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkey Buyuk Millet Meclisi (600 seats); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote, with a 10% threshold required to win a seat; members serve 5-year terms)
Elections: last held on 14 May 2023 (next to be held in 2,028)
Election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - People's Alliance 49.9% (AKP 35.6%, MHP 10.1%, YRP 2.8%, BBP 1%), Nation Alliance 35.4% (CHP 25.3%, IYI 9.7%), Labor and Freedom Alliance 10.7% (YSGP 8.9%, TIP 1.8%); seats by party/coalition - People's Alliance 323 (AKP 268, MHP 50, YRP 5), Nation Alliance 212 (CHP 169, IYI 43), Labor and Freedom Alliance 65 (YSGP 61, TIP 4); composition - men 479, women 121, percent of women 20.2%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of the president, 2 vice presidents, and 12 judges); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and is organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)
Judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 12 by the president of the republic; court president and 2 deputy court presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges serve 12-year, nonrenewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Board of Judges and Prosecutors, a 13-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges serve until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the Board and by the president of the republic; members serve renewable, 4-year terms
Subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts; peace courts; aggravated crime courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit; note - a constitutional amendment in 2017 abolished military courts unless established to investigate military personnel actions during war conditions

Political parties and leaders:
Democracy and Progress Party or DEVA [Ali BABACAN]
Democrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
Democratic Regions Party or DBP [Saliha AYDENIZ, Keskin BAYINDIR]
Felicity Party (Saadet Party) or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
Free Cause Party or HUDA PAR [Zekeriya YAPICIOGLU]
Future Party (Gelecek Partisi) or GP [Ahmet DAVUTOGLU]
Good Party or IYI [Meral AKSENER]
Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
Labor and Freedom Alliance (electoral alliance includes YSGP, HDP, TIP)
Nation Alliance [collective leadership] (electoral alliance includes CHP, DEVA, DP, GP, IYI, SP) (dissolved 1 June 2023)
Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
New Welfare Party or YRP [Fatih ERBAKAN]
Party of Greens and the Left Future or YSGP [Cigfrm Kilicgun UCAR and Ibrahim AKIN]
People's Alliance (electoral alliance includes AKP, BBP, MHP, YRP)
Peoples' Democratic Party or HDP [Pervin BULDAN, Mithat SANCAR]
Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
Workers' Party of Turkey or TIP [Erkan BAS]

Note: as of September 2021, 116 political parties were legally registered

International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Note: Turkey is an EU candidate country whose satisfactory completion of accession criteria is required before being granted full EU membership

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Hasan Murat MERCAN (since 20 April 2021)
In the us chancery: 2,525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 612-6,700
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 612-6,744
In the us email address and website:
embassy.washingtondc@mfa.gov.tr

[link]

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffry Lane FLAKE (since 26 January 2022)
From the us embassy: 1480 Sokak No. 1, Cukurambar Mahallesi, 6,530 Cankaya, Ankara
From the us mailing address: 7,000 Ankara Place, Washington DC 20,512-7,000
From the us telephone: [90] (312) 294-0000
From the us FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
From the us email address and website:
Ankara-ACS@state.gov

[link]


Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors

National symbols: vertical crescent moon with adjacent five-pointed star; national colors: red, white

National anthem
Name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
Lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
Note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 19 (17 cultural, 2 mixed)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Archaeological Site of Troy (c); [link]


Turkey - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: upper middle-income, diversified Middle Eastern economy; economic instability from 2016 attempted coup and 2018 currency recession; hit hard by COVID-19, increasing poverty and unemployment; endemic corruption; large agriculture labor force

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$2.668 trillion (2021 est.)
$2.396 trillion (2020 est.)
$2.35 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
11.35% (2021 est.)
1.94% (2020 est.)
0.78% (2019 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 14.5% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 29.8% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 24.9% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)
Industry: 32.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 60.7% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: 12.46% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 32.554 million (2021 est.)
Note: this number is for the domestic labor force only; number does not include about 1.2 million Turks working abroad, nor refugees
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
13.39% (2021 est.)
13.11% (2020 est.)
13.67% (2019 est.)


Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 24.3% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 21.4%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 29.9%

Population below poverty line: 14.4% (2018 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 41.9 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.1%
Highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $210.536 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $249.268 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
41.97% of GDP (2020 est.)
34.13% of GDP (2019 est.)
29.41% of GDP (2018 est.)


Taxes and other revenues: 17.64% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

Revenue
From forest resources: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.05% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$13.693 billion (2021 est.)
-$35.537 billion (2020 est.)
$5.303 billion (2019 est.)


Inflation rate consumer prices:
19.6% (2021 est.)
12.28% (2020 est.)
15.18% (2019 est.)


Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$13.693 billion (2021 est.)
-$35.537 billion (2020 est.)
$5.303 billion (2019 est.)


Exports:
$282.851 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$203.816 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$244.941 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 9%, United Kingdom 6%, Iraq 5%, Italy 5%, United States 5% (2019)
Commodities: cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, delivery trucks, jewelry, clothing and apparel (2019)

Imports:
$285.578 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$230.141 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$227.638 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Germany 11%, China 9%, Russia 9%, United States 5%, Italy 5% (2019)
Commodities: gold, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, scrap iron (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$109.535 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$93.512 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$105.62 billion (31 December 2019 est.)


Debt external:
$438.677 billion (2019 est.)
$454.251 billion (2018 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar - 8.85 (2021 est.)
7.009 (2020 est.)
5.674 (2019 est.)
4.828 (2018 est.)
3.648 (2017 est.)



Turkey - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 263.952 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 2.484 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 1.888 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 96.846 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 56.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 3.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 8.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 26.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Petroleum
Total petroleum production: 70,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 987,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 423,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 366 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 657,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 141,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 560,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 469.464 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Consumption: 44,605,473,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 759.372 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Imports: 45,091,248,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 3.794 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 391.792 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 172.298 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 133.587 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 85.907 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 79.126 million Btu/person (2019 est.)


Turkey - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 11,197,979 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2022 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 90,297,565 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2022 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and 567 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; 1,007 private radio broadcast stations

Internet country code: .tr

Internet users
Total: 68.85 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 81% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 16,734,853 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2020 est.)


Turkey - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.3% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2021)
1.9% of GDP (2020)
1.9% of GDP (2019)


Military and security forces:
Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri)

Ministry of Interior: Gendarmerie of the Turkish Republic (aka Gendarmerie General Command), Turkish Coast Guard Command, National Police (2023)

Note: the Gendarmerie (Jandarma) is responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas); in wartime, the Gendarmerie and Coast Guard would be placed under the operational control of the Land Forces and Naval Forces, respectively

Military service age and obligation: mandatory military service for men at age 20; service can be delayed if in university or in certain professions (researchers, professionals, and athletic, or those with artistic talents have the right to postpone military service until the age of 35); 6-12 months service; women may volunteer (2023)
Note 1: in 2019, a new law cut the men’s mandatory military service period in half, as well as making paid military service permanent; with the new system, the period of conscription was reduced from 12 months to 6 months for privates and non-commissioned soldiers (the service term for reserve officers chosen among university or college graduates remained 12 months); after completing 6 months of service, if a conscripted soldier wants to and is suitable for extending his military service, he may do so for an additional 6 months in return for a monthly salary; under the new law, all male Turkish citizens over the age of 20 are required to undergo a 1 month military training period, but they can obtain an exemption from the remaining 5 months of their mandatory service by paying a fee
Note 2: as of 2020, women made up about 0.3% of the military's full-time personnel

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU); Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)/Qods Force; Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK); al-Qa'ida; Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Turkey - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 618
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,595,495 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,949,210,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: TC

Airports: 98 (2021)
With paved runways: 91
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 7
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 91
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 7
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 20 (2021)

Pipelines: 14,666 km gas, 3,293 km oil (2017)

Railways
Total: 11,497 km (2018)
Standard gauge: 11,497 km (2018) 1.435-m gauge (1.435 km high speed train)

Roadways
Total: 67,333 km (2018)
Paved: 24,082 km (2018) (includes 2,159 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 43,251 km (2018)

Waterways: 1,200 km (2010)

Merchant marine
Total: 1,237 (2022)
By type: bulk carrier 37, container ship 41, general cargo 288, oil tanker 130, other 741

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
Container ports teus: Ambarli (2,942,550), Mersin (Icel) (2,106,937), Izmet (1,967,946) (2021)
Lng terminals import: Aliaga, Dortyol, Ekti (Izmir), Marmara Ereglisi


Turkey - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalTurkey-Armenia: in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; in early 2022, the two countries held talks twice aimed at normalizing relations, which could lead to the opening of their land border, shut since 1993; in 2000, Turkish authorities complained to UNESCO that blasting from quarries in Armenia was damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 10,244 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022); 3,274,059 (Syria), 42,720 (Ukraine) (as of 23 November 2023) (2023)
IDPs: 1.099 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2022)
Stateless persons: 117 (2018)

Illicit drugs: a significant transit country for illicit drug trafficking; an increase of heroin and methamphetamine seizures along the Turkiye-Iran border; Syrian drug traffickers play a significant role in Turkiye’s drug trade; domestic Illegal drug use relatively low compared to countries in the region


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