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United States in the World
United States in the World


United States - Introduction 2023
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Background: Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.

United States - Geography 2023
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Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W

Map referenceNorth America

Total: 9,833,517 km²
Land: 9,147,593 km²
Water: 685,924 km²
Note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia, no overseas territories
Comparative: about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union

Land boundaries
Total: 12,002 km
Border countries: (2) Canada 8,891 km; (including 2,475 km; with Alaska) Mexico 3,111 km
Note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28.5 km

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: not specified

Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Note: many consider Denali, the highest peak in the US, to be the world’s coldest mountain because of its combination of high elevation and its subarctic location at 63 degrees north latitude; permanent snow and ice cover over 75 percent of the mountain, and enormous glaciers, up to 45 miles long and 3,700 feet thick, spider out from its base in every direction; it is home to some of the world’s coldest and most violent weather, where winds of over 150 miles per hour and temperatures of -93˚F have been recorded.  

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Highest point: Denali 6,190 m (Mount McKinley) (highest point in North America)
Lowest point: Death Valley (lowest point in North America) -86 m
Mean elevation: 760 m
Note: Denali is one of the most striking features on the entire planet; at 20,310 feet, it is the crowning peak of the Alaska Range and the highest mountain on North America; it towers three and one-half vertical miles above its base, making it a mile taller from base to summit than Mt. Everest; Denali's base sits at about 2,000 feet above sea level and rises over three and one-half miles to its 20,310 foot summit; Everest begins on a 14,000-foot high plain, then summits at 29,028 feet.note: the peak of Mauna Kea (4,207 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber, arable land;
Note 1: the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total
Note 2: the US is reliant on foreign imports for 100% of its needs for the following strategic resources: Arsenic, Cesium, Fluorspar, Gallium, Graphite, Indium, Manganese, Niobium, Rare Earths, Rubidium, Scandium, Tantalum, Yttrium; see Appendix H: Strategic Materials for further details
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 44.5% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 16.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 27.4% (2018 est.)
Forest: 33.3% (2018 est.)
Other: 22.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 234,782 km² (2017)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Missouri - 3,768 km; Mississippi - 3,544 km; Yukon river mouth (shared with Canada [s]) - 3,190 km; Saint Lawrence (shared with Canada) - 3,058 km; Rio Grande river source ( mouth shared with Mexico) - 3,057 km; Colorado river source (shared with Mexico [m]) - 2,333 km; Arkansas - 2,348 km; Columbia river mouth (shared with Canada [s]) - 2,250 km; Red - 2,188 km; Ohio - 2,102 km; Snake - 1,670 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Gulf of Mexico) Mississippi* (3,202,185 km²); Rio Grande (607,965 km²); (Gulf of Saint Lawrence) Saint Lawrence* (1,049,636 km² total, US only 505,000 km²)
Pacific Ocean drainage: Yukon* (847,620 km², US only 23,820 km²); Colorado (703,148 km²); Columbia* (657,501 km², US only 554,501 km²)
note - watersheds shared with Canada shown with *

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 58.39 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 209.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 176.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 3.07 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development

Note note 1: world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point (6,190 m) in North America and Death Valley the lowest point (-86 m) on the continent
Note note 2: the western coast of the United States and southern coast of Alaska lie along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
Note note 3: the Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands that divide the Bering Sea (north) from the main Pacific Ocean (south); they extend about 1,800 km westward from the Alaskan Peninsula; the archipelago consists of 14 larger islands, 55 smaller islands, and hundreds of islets; there are 41 active volcanoes on the islands, which together form a large northern section of the Ring of Fire
Note note 4: Mammoth Cave, in west-central Kentucky, is the world's longest known cave system with more than 650 km (405 miles) of surveyed passageways, which is nearly twice as long as the second-longest cave system, the Sac Actun underwater cave in Mexico - the world's longest underwater cave system (see "Geography - note" under Mexico);
Note note 5: Kazumura Cave on the island of Hawaii is the world's longest and deepest lava tube cave; it has been surveyed at 66 km (41 mi) long and 1,102 m (3,614 ft) deep
Note note 6: Bracken Cave outside of San Antonio, Texas is the world's largest bat cave; it is the summer home to the largest colony of bats in the world; an estimated 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats roost in the cave from March to October making it the world's largest known concentration of mammals
Note note 7: the US is reliant on foreign imports for 100% of its needs for the following strategic resources - Arsenic, Cesium, Fluorspar, Gallium, Graphite, Indium, Manganese, Niobium, Rare Earths, Rubidium, Scandium, Tantalum, Yttrium; see Appendix H: Strategic Materials for further details
Note note 8: three food crops are generally acknowledged to be native to areas of what is now the United States: cranberries, pecans, and sunflowers

United States - People 2023
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Distribution: large urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu: 339,665,118 (2023 est.)
Note: the US Census Bureau's 2020 census results show the US population as 331,449,281 as of 1 April 2020
Growth rate: 0.68% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 15.1% (2010 est.)

Noun: American(s)
Adjective: American

Ethnic groups: White 61.6%, Black or African American 12.4%, Asian 6%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1.1%, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.2%, other 8.4%, two or more races 10.2% (2020 est.)
Note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (White, Black, Asian, etc.); an estimated 18.7% of the total US population is Hispanic as of 2020

Languages: English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.)
Note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska

Religions: Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Church of Jesus Christ 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18.15% (male 31,509,186/female 30,154,408)
15-64 years: 63.72% (male 108,346,275/female 108,100,830)
65 years and over: 18.12% (2023 est.) (male 27,589,149/female 33,965,270)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.7
Youth dependency ratio: 28
Elderly dependency ratio: 25.6
Potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 38.5 years (2020)
Male: 37.2 years
Female: 39.8 years

Population growth rate: 0.68% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 12.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: large urban clusters are spread throughout the eastern half of the US (particularly the Great Lakes area, northeast, east, and southeast) and the western tier states; mountainous areas, principally the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian chain, deserts in the southwest, the dense boreal forests in the extreme north, and the central prarie states are less densely populated; Alaska's population is concentrated along its southern coast - with particular emphasis on the city of Anchorage - and Hawaii's is centered on the island of Oahu

Urban population: 83.3% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.96% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 18.937 million New York-Newark, 12.534 million Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, 8.937 million Chicago, 6.707 million Houston, 6.574 million Dallas-Fort Worth, 5.490 million WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) (2023)

Current issues: air pollution; large emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; declining natural freshwater resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; deforestation; mining; desertification; species conservation; invasive species (the Hawaiian Islands are particularly vulnerable)
International agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping-London Protocol

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 7.18 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 5,006.3 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 685.74 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female NA
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 27 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio: 21 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 80.8 years (2023 est.)
Male: 78.5 years
Female: 82.9 years

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73.9% (2017/19)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 99.9% of population
Improved rural: 99.7% of population
Improved total: 99.9% of population
Unimproved urban: 0.1% of population
Unimproved rural: 0.3% of population
Unimproved total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 18.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 2.61 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 2.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.8% of population

rural: 98.9% of population

total: 99.7% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.2% of population

rural: 11.1% of population

total: 0.3% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 36.2% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 8.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 3.97 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 1.67 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 3.29 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 23% (2020 est.)
Male: 28.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 17.5% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 0.4% (2017/18)

Education expenditures: 6.1% of GDP (2020 est.)

Total population: NA
Male: NA
Female: NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 16 years
Male: 16 years
Female: 17 years (2020)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 9.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 10.5%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.6%

United States - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: United States of America
Conventional short form: United States
Abbreviation: US or USA
Etymology: the name America is derived from that of Amerigo VESPUCCI (1454-1512) - Italian explorer, navigator, and cartographer - using the Latin form of his name, Americus, feminized to America

Government type: constitutional federal republic

Name: Washington, DC
Geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W
Time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Time zone note: the 50 United States cover six time zones
Etymology: named after George WASHINGTON (1732-1799), the first president of the United States

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Dependent areas: (14) American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island (14)
Note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; it entered into a political relationship with all four political entities: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994)

Independence: 4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

History: previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine of the 13 states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789
Amendments: proposed as a "joint resolution" by Congress, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by at least two thirds of the state legislatures; passage requires ratification by three fourths of the state legislatures or passage in state-held constitutional conventions as specified by Congress; the US president has no role in the constitutional amendment process; amended many times, last in 1992

Legal system: common law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law, except Louisiana, where state law is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation: withdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002

Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate
Elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)
Election results:

Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. elected president; electoral vote - Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (Democratic Party) 306, Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 232; percent of direct popular vote - Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. 51.3%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.9%, other 1.8%

2016: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%

Legislative branch
bicameral Congress consists of:
Senate (100 seats; 2 members directly elected in each of the 50 state constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia and Louisiana which require an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years)
House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote except in Georgia which requires an absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 2-year terms)

Senate - last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)
House of Representatives - last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

Election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 51, Republican Party 49; composition - men 75, women 25, percent of women 25%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 222, Democratic Party 213; composition - men 307, women 128, percent of women 29.4%; note - total US Congress percent of women 28.6%

Note: in addition to the regular members of the House of Representatives there are 6 non-voting delegates elected from the District of Columbia and the US territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands; these are single seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term (except for the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico who serves a 4-year term); the delegate can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the Committee of the Whole House, but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote; election of delegates last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held on 3 November 2024)

Judicial branch
Highest courts: US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices)
Judge selection and term of office: president nominates and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices serve for life
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories
Note: the US court system consists of the federal court system and the state court systems; although each court system is responsible for hearing certain types of cases, neither is completely independent of the other, and the systems often interact

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party [Jaime HARRISON]
Green Party [collective leadership]
Libertarian Party [Angela McARDLE]
Republican Party [Ronna Romney MCDANIEL]

International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Quad, SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOOSA, UNRWA, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, USMCA, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of United%20States: 13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship, red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory
Note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

National symbols: bald eagle; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem
Name: "The Star-Spangled Banner"
Lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH
Note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song"; only the first verse is sung

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 24 (11 cultural, 12 natural, 1 mixed); note - includes one site in Puerto Rico
Selected World Heritage Site locales: selected World Heritage Site locales: Yellowstone National Park (n); Grand Canyon National Park (n); Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (c); Independence Hall (c); Statue of Liberty (c); Yosemite National Park (n); Papahānaumokuākea (m); Monumental Earthworks of Poverty Point (c); The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright (c); Mesa Verde National Park (c); Mammoth Cave National Park (n); Monticello (c); Olympic National Park (n)

United States - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, diversified North American economy; NATO leader; largest importer and second-largest exporter; home to leading financial exchanges; high and growing public debt; rising socioeconomic inequalities; historically low interest rates; hit by COVID-19

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$21.132 trillion (2021 est.)
$19.946 trillion (2020 est.)
$20.513 trillion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
5.95% (2021 est.)
-2.77% (2020 est.)
2.29% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 68.4% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 17.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 12.1% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -15% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
Industry: 19.1% (2017 est.)
Services: 80% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 3.25% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 164.797 million (2021 est.)
Note: includes unemployed
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5.46% (2021 est.)
8.05% (2020 est.)
3.67% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 9.6% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 10.5%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 8.6%

Population below poverty line: 15.1% (2010 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 41.5 (2019 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2%
Highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $6.429 trillion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $7.647 trillion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
126.39% of GDP (2020 est.)
100.9% of GDP (2019 est.)
99.15% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intragovernment debt were added, "gross debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP

Taxes and other revenues: 9.86% (of GDP) (2020 est.)
Note: excludes contributions for social security and other programs; if social contributions were added, taxes and other revenues would amount to approximately 22% of GDP

From forest resources: 0.04% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.2% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

Current account balance:
-$846.354 billion (2021 est.)
-$619.702 billion (2020 est.)
-$445.955 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
4.7% (2021 est.)
1.23% (2020 est.)
1.81% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$846.354 billion (2021 est.)
-$619.702 billion (2020 est.)
-$445.955 billion (2019 est.)

$2.557 trillion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.159 trillion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.546 trillion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Canada 16%, Mexico 15%, China 9%, Japan 4%, South Korea 4% (2021)
Commodities: refined petroleum, natural gas, crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, aircraft, vaccines and cultures (2021)

$3.402 trillion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.813 trillion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$3.106 trillion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 19%, Mexico 13%, Canada 13%, Germany 5%, Japan 5% (2021)
Commodities: cars, crude petroleum, computers, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$716.152 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$628.37 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$516.701 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$20,275,951,000,000 (2019 est.)
$19,452,478,000,000 (2018 est.)

Note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
British pounds per US dollar: 0.7836 (2017 est.), 0.738 (2016 est.), 0.738 (2015 est.), 0.607 (2014 est), 0.6391 (2013 est.)
Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1, 1.308 (2017 est.), 1.3256 (2016 est.), 1.3256 (2015 est.), 1.2788 (2014 est.), 1.0298 (2013 est.)
Chinese yuan per US dollar: 1, 6.7588 (2017 est.), 6.6445 (2016 est.), 6.2275 (2015 est.), 6.1434 (2014 est.), 6.1958 (2013 est.)
euros per US dollar: 0.885 (2017 est.), 0.903 (2016 est.), 0.9214(2015 est.), 0.885 (2014 est.), 0.7634 (2013 est.)
Japanese yen per US dollar: 111.10 (2017 est.), 108.76 (2016 est.), 108.76 (2015 est.), 121.02 (2014 est.), 97.44 (2013 est.)

Note 1: the following countries and territories use the US dollar officially as their legal tender: British Virgin Islands, Ecuador, El Salvador, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Timor Leste, Turks and Caicos, and islands of the Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba)
Note 2: the following countries and territories use the US dollar as official legal tender alongside local currency: Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, and Panama
Note 3: the following countries and territories widely accept the US dollar as a dominant currency but have yet to declare it as legal tender: Bermuda, Burma, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Somalia

United States - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 3,897,886,551,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity exports: 14,134,679,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 61,448,863,000 kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 1,143,266,000 kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 59.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 19.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 8.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 17,924,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 20,542,900 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 2,048,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 7,768,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 47.107 billion barrels (2020 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 20.3 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products exports: 5.218 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Products imports: 2.175 million bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 967,144,362,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 857,542,658,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 188,401,779,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 79,512,470,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 13,178,780,000,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 5,144,361,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 1,077,520,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 2,382,833,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 1,684,008,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 304.414 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

United States - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 91.623 million (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 360 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: 4 major terrestrial TV networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with many affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 900 member stations; satellite radio available; in total, over 15,000 radio stations operating (2018)

Internet country code: .us

Internet users
Total: 312.8 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 92% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 121.176 million (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

United States - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2023 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2022 est.)
3.5% of GDP (2021)
3.6% of GDP (2020)
3.5% of GDP (2019)

Military and security forces: United States Armed Forces (aka US Military): US Army (USA), US Navy (USN; includes US Marine Corps or USMC), US Air Force (USAF), US Space Force (USSF); US Coast Guard (USCG); National Guard (Army National Guard and Air National Guard) (2024)
Note 1: the US Coast Guard is administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy
Note 2: the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard are reserve components of their services and operate in part under state authority; the US military also maintains reserve forces for each branch
Note 3: US law enforcement personnel include those of federal agencies, such as the Department of Homeland Security and Department of Justice, the 50 states, special jurisdictions, local sheriff’s offices, and municipal, county, regional, and tribal police departments
Note 4: the US has state defense forces (SDFs), which are military units that operate under the sole authority of state governments; SDFs are authorized by state and federal law and are under the command of the governor of each state; as of 2023, more than 20 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico had SDFs, which typically have emergency management and homeland security missions; most are organized as ground units, but air and naval units also exist

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for voluntary service for men and women; no conscription (currently inactive, but males aged 18-25 must register with Selective Service in case conscription is reinstated in the future); maximum enlistment age 34 (Army), 42 (Air Force/Space Force), 39 (Navy), 28 (Marines), 31 (Coast Guard); 8-year service obligation, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active duty (Navy), 4 years active duty (Air Force, Coast Guard, Marines, Space Force) (2023)
Note 1: he US military has been all-volunteer since 1973, but an act of Congress can reinstate the draft in case of a national emergency
Note 2: all military occupations and positions open to women; in 2021, women comprised over 17% of the total US active duty military personnel; a small number of American women were involved in combat during the Revolutionary (1775-1783), Mexican (1846-1848), and Civil (1861-1865) Wars, but they had to disguise themselves as men and enlist under aliases; the first official US military organization for women was the US Army Nurse Corps, established in 1901; during World War I, the US Navy and Marine Corps allowed women to enlist; nearly 350,000 women served in the US military during World War II; the 1991 Gulf War was the first war where women served with men in integrated units within a war zone; in 2015, women were allowed to serve in direct combat roles
Note 3: non-citizens living permanently and legally in the US may join as enlisted personnel; must have permission to work in the US, a high school diploma, and speak, read, and write English fluently; minimum age of 17 with parental consent or 18 without; maximum age 29-39, depending on the service; under the US Nationality Act, honorable service in the military may qualify individuals to obtain expedited citizenship; under the Compact of Free Association, citizens of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands may volunteer; under the Jay Treaty, signed in 1794 between Great Britain and the US, and corresponding legislation, Native Americans/First Nations born in Canada are entitled to freely enter the US and join the US military

Terrorist groups
Terrorist groups: Hizballah; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)/Qods Force; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); al-Qa'ida; Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LeT) 
Note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in appendix T on terrorist organizationss

United States - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 99 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 7,249
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 889.022 million (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 42,985,300,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: N

Airports: 13,513 (2022)
Note: 24.5% of airports are public
With paved runways: 5,054
With paved runways civil airports: 1,606
With paved runways military airports: 162
With paved runways joint use (civil-military) airports: 31
With paved runways other airports: 3,255
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 8,459
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 5,054
Civil airports: 1,606
Military airports: 162
Joint use (civil-military) airports: 31
Other airports: 3,255
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 8,459
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Heliports: 6,092 (2022)

Pipelines: 1,984,321 km natural gas, 240,711 km petroleum products (2013)

Total: 293,564.2 km (2014)
Standard gauge: 293,564.2 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

Total: 6,586,610 km (2012)
Paved: 4,304,715 km (2012) (includes 76,334 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 2,281,895 km (2012)

Waterways: 41,009 km (2012) (19,312 km used for commerce; Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, is shared with Canada)

Merchant marine
Total: 178 (2022)
By type:
bulk carrier 4, container ship 61, general cargo 19, oil tanker 65, other (roll on/roll off 29)

note - oceangoing self-propelled, cargo-carrying vessels of 1,000 gross tons and above

Ports and terminals
Major seaports:

Atlantic Ocean:
Charleston, Hampton Roads, New York/New Jersey, Savannah
Pacific Ocean: Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oakland, Seattle/Tacoma
Gulf of Mexico: Houston

Oil terminals: LOOP terminal, Haymark terminal
Container ports teus: Charleston (2,751,442), Hampton Roads (3,522,834), Houston (3,453,220), Long Beach (9,384,368), Los Angeles (10,677,610), New York/New Jersey (8,985,929), Oakland (2,448,243), Savannah (5,613,163), Seattle/Tacoma (3,736,206) (2021)
Lng terminals export:
Calcasieu Pass (LA), Cameron (LA), Corpus Christi (TX), Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Freeport (TX), Sabine Pass (LA)
note - two additional export facilities are under construction and expected to begin commercial operations in 2023-2024

Lng terminals import: Cove Point (MD), Elba Island (GA), Everett (MA), Freeport (TX), Golden Pass (TX), Hackberry (LA), Lake Charles (LA), Neptune (offshore), Northeast Gateway (offshore), Pascagoula (MS), Sabine Pass (TX)
River ports: Baton Rouge, Plaquemines, New Orleans (Mississippi River)
Cargo ports: Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Hampton Roads, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines (LA), Tampa, Texas City
Cruise departure ports: Miami, Port Everglades, Port Canaveral, Seattle, Long Beach

United States - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalUS-Antarctica: the US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: the US admitted 25,465 refugees during FY2022, including: 7,810 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 4,556 (Syria), 2,156 (Burma), 1,669 (Sudan), 1,618 (Afghanistan), 1,610 (Ukraine)
Stateless persons: 47 (2022)

Illicit drugs: world's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center


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