Statistical information Uruguay 2023Uruguay

Map of Uruguay | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Uruguay - Introduction 2023
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Background: Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon became an important commercial center due to its natural harbor. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence in 1825 and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros (or Movimiento de Liberación Nacional-Tupamaros (MLN-T)), launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio (FA) Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and National (Blanco) parties. The left-of-center retained the presidency and control of both chambers of congress until 2019. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

Uruguay - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 S, 56 00 W

Map referenceSouth America

Total: 176,215 km²
Land: 175,015 km²
Water: 1,200 km²
Comparative: about the size of Virginia and West Virginia combined; slightly smaller than the state of Washington

Land boundaries
Total: 1,591 km
Border countries: (2) Argentina 541 km; Brazil 1,050 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Mean elevation: 109 m

Natural resources: arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 87.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 10.1% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 76.9% (2018 est.)
Forest: 10.2% (2018 est.)
Other: 2.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,380 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Rio de la Plata/Parana river mouth (shared with Brazil [s], Argentina, Paraguay) - 4,880 km; Uruguay river mouth (shared with Brazil [s] and Argentina) - 1,610 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 410 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 80 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 3.17 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 172.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts

Note: second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising

Uruguay - People 2023
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Distribution: most of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo: 3,416,264 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 0.27% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 8.8% (2019 est.)

Noun: Uruguayan(s)
Adjective: Uruguayan

Ethnic groups: White 87.7%, Black 4.6%, Indigenous 2.4%, other 0.3%, none or unspecified 5% (2011 est.)
Note: data represent primary ethnic identity

Languages: Spanish (official) (many speak the Rioplatense dialect)
Major-language samples:
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

Gheos World Guide, the indispensable source for basic information.

Roman Catholic 36.5%, Protestant 5% (Evangelical (non-specific) 4.6%, Adventist 0.2%, Protestant (non-specific) 0.3%), African American Cults/Umbanda 2.8%, Jehovah's Witness 0.6%, Church of Jesus Christ 0.2%, other 1%, Believer (not belonging to the church) 1.8%, agnostic 0.3%, atheist 1.3%, none 47.3%, unspecified 3.4%

Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 15%, other 6%, agnostic 3%, atheist 10%, unspecified 24% (2023 est.)

Demographic profile: Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19.02% (male 330,536/female 319,132)
15-64 years: 65.55% (male 1,110,881/female 1,128,546)
65 years and over: 15.43% (2023 est.) (male 213,750/female 313,419)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 53.6
Youth dependency ratio: 29.9
Elderly dependency ratio: 23.7
Potential support ratio: 4.2 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 36.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 34.6 years
Female: 37.9 years

Population growth rate: 0.27% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 12.7 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: most of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo

Urban population: 95.8% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 1.774 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2023)

Current issues: water pollution from meat packing, tannery industries; heavy metal pollution; inadequate solid and hazardous waste disposal; deforestation
International agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 8.48 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 6.77 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 25.59 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio: 19 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.7 years (2023 est.)
Male: 75.6 years
Female: 81.9 years

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 79.6% (2015)
Note: percent of women aged 15-44

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 100% of population
Improved rural: 100% of population
Improved total: 100% of population
Unimproved urban: 0% of population
Unimproved rural: 0% of population
Unimproved total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 9.2% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 4.94 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density: 2.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
99.2% of population

rural: 99.6% of population

total: 99.2% of population

Unimproved urban:
0.8% of population

rural: 0.4% of population

total: 0.8% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 27.9% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 5.42 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.86 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 2.86 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.71 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 21.5% (2020 est.)
Male: 24.4% (2020 est.)
Female: 18.5% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.8% (2018)

Education expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.8%
Male: 98.5%
Female: 99% (2019)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education
Total: 19 years
Male: 17 years
Female: 20 years (2019)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 32.9% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 28.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 38.7%

Uruguay - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
Conventional short form: Uruguay
Local long form: República Oriental del Uruguay
Local short form: Uruguay
Former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
Etymology: name derives from the Spanish pronunciation of the Guarani Indian designation of the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Montevideo
Geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
Time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: the name "Montevidi" was originally applied to the hill that overlooked the bay upon which the city of Montevideo was founded; the earliest meaning may have been "[the place where we] saw the hill"

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1825)

History: several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967, reinstated in 1985 at the conclusion of military rule
Amendments: initiated by public petition of at least 10% of qualified voters, proposed by agreement of at least two fifths of the General Assembly membership, or by existing "constitutional laws" sanctioned by at least two thirds of the membership in both houses of the Assembly; proposals can also be submitted by senators, representatives, or by the executive power and require the formation of and approval in a national constituent convention; final passage by either method requires approval by absolute majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2004

Legal system: civil law system based on the Spanish civil code

International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: yes
Citizenship by descent only: yes
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly
Elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 27 October 2019 with a runoff election on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in October 2024, and a runoff if needed in November 2024)
Election results:
2019: Luis Alberto LACALLE POU elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 40.7%, Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 29.7%, Ernesto TALVI (Colorado Party) 12.8%, Guido MANINI RIOS (Open Cabildo) 11.3%, other 5.5%; percent of vote in second round - Luis Alberto LACALLE POU 50.6%, Daniel MARTINEZ 49.4%

2014: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in second round; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%

Legislative branch
bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of:
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms)
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method; members serve 5-year terms)

Chamber of Senators - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)
Chamber of Representatives - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)

Election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 13, National Party 10, Colorado Party 4, Open Cabildo 3; composition - men 21, women 10, percent of women 25.3%%

Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 42, National Party 30, Colorado Party 13, Open Cabildo 11, Independent Party 1, other 2; composition - men 74, women 25, percent of women 25.3%; note - total General Assembly percent of women 26.9%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)
Judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed by two-thirds vote in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges serve 10-year terms, with reelection possible after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term
Subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzgados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzgados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)

Political parties and leaders:
Broad Front or FA (Frente Amplio) [Fernando PEREIRA] - (a broad governing coalition that comprises 34 factions including Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Gonzalo CIVILA], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Jorge RODRIGUEZ], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement or MPP [Jose MUJICA], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Juan CASTILLO], The Federal League [Sergio LIER], Fuerza Renovadora [Mario BERGARA])
Colorado Party (including Batllistas [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI] and Ciudadanos [Adrian PENA])
Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
National Party or Blanco (including Todos (Everyone) [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Carlos CAMY])
Open Cabildo [Guido MANINI RIOS]
Popular Unity [Gonzalo ABELLA]

International organization participation: CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Andres Augusto DURAN HAREAU (since 23 December 2020)
In the us chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20,006
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 331-8,142
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Heide B. FULTON (since 22 March 2023)
From the us embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11,200
From the us mailing address: 3,360 Montevideo Place, Washington DC 20,521-3,360
From the us telephone: (+598) 1770-2000
From the us FAX: [+598] 1770-2,128
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Uruguay: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face (delineated in black) known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
Note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag

National symbols: Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow

National anthem
Name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
Lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI
Note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 3 (all cultural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic City of Colonia del Sacramento; Fray Bentos Industrial Landscape; The work of engineer Eladio Dieste: Church of Atlántida

Uruguay - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: high-income, export-oriented South American economy; South America’s largest middle class; low socioeconomic inequality; growing homicide rates; growing Chinese and EU relations; 2019 Argentine recession hurt; key milk, beef, rice, and wool exporter

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$78.121 billion (2021 est.)
$74.852 billion (2020 est.)
$79.733 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.37% (2021 est.)
-6.12% (2020 est.)
0.35% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 66.8% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 14.3% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 16.7% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 21.6% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -18.4% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 6.2% (2017 est.)
Industry: 24.1% (2017 est.)
Services: 69.7% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 5.87% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 1.702 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
10.45% (2021 est.)
10.35% (2020 est.)
8.88% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 32.9% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 28.3%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 38.7%

Population below poverty line: 8.8% (2019 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 40.2 (2020 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.9%
Highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $14.991 billion (2020 est.)
Expenditures: $17.571 billion (2020 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
60.4% of GDP (2020 est.)
50.94% of GDP (2019 est.)
47.95% of GDP (2018 est.)

Note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

Taxes and other revenues: 18.55% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 1.56% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
-$1.073 billion (2021 est.)
-$448.402 million (2020 est.)
$980.513 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
7.75% (2021 est.)
9.76% (2020 est.)
7.88% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
-$1.073 billion (2021 est.)
-$448.402 million (2020 est.)
$980.513 million (2019 est.)

$18.82 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$13.596 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$17.087 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: China 29%, Brazil 12%, United States 5%, Netherlands 5%, Argentina 5% (2019)
Commodities: sulfate wood pulp, beef, soybeans, concentrated milk, rice (2019)

$15.051 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$11.212 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$13.336 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Brazil 25%, China 15%, United States 11%, Argentina 11% (2019)
Commodities: crude petroleum, packaged medicines, cars, broadcasting equipment, delivery trucks (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$16.963 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$16.25 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$14.504 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$43.705 billion (2019 est.)
$42.861 billion (2018 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar - 43.555 (2021 est.)
42.013 (2020 est.)
35.255 (2019 est.)
30.725 (2018 est.)
28.676 (2017 est.)

Uruguay - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Electrification-total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 11,461,960,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 1.148 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity imports: 515 million kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 5.348 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 3.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 42.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 30.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 21.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 400 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 50,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 41,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 42,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 9,591 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 96.872 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 96.872 million cubic meters (2019 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 6.45 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 6.259 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 190,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 66.909 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Uruguay - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 1,258,557 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2021 est.)

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 4.7 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: mixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2019)

Internet country code: .uy

Internet users
Total: 3.06 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 90% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 1,063,701 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2020 est.)

Uruguay - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
2% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Armed Forces of Uruguay (Fuerzas Armadas del Uruguay): National Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Coast Guard (Prefectura Nacional Naval or PRENA)), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea)

Ministry of Interior: National Police (2023)

Note: the National Police includes the paramilitary National Republican Guard (Guardia Nacional Republicana); the National Police maintains internal security, while the National Directorate for Migration is responsible for migration and border enforcement

Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for Navy) for voluntary military service for men and women; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies (2023)
Note: as of 2023, women comprised nearly 20% of the active military

Terrorist groups

Uruguay - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: CX

Airports: 133 (2021)
With paved runways: 11
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 122
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 11
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 122
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


Pipelines: 257 km gas, 160 km oil (2013)

Total: 1,673 km (2016) (operational; government claims overall length is 2,961 km)
Standard gauge: 1,673 km (2016) 1.435-m gauge

Total: 77,732 km (2010)
Paved: 7,743 km (2010)
Unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)

Waterways: 1,600 km (2011)

Merchant marine
Total: 60 (2022)
By type: container ship 1, general cargo 4, oil tanker 4, other 51

Ports and terminals
Major seaports: Montevideo

Uruguay - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes internationalUruguay-Argentina: in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime, which ended the dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 19,000 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2022)
Stateless persons: 5 (2022)

Illicit drugs: transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; limited law enforcement corruption; money laundering; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs

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