Statistical information Zambia 2023Zambia

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Zambia - Introduction 2023
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Bantu-speaking groups mainly from the Luba and Lunda Kingdoms in the Congo River Basin and from the Great Lakes region in East Africa settled in what is now Zambia beginning around A.D. 300, displacing and mixing with previous population groups in the region. The Mutapa Empire developed after the fall of Great Zimbabwe to the south in the 14th century and ruled the region, including large parts of Zambia, from the 14th to 17th century. The empire collapsed as a result of the growing slave trade and Portuguese incursions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The region was further influenced by migrants from the Zulu Kingdom to the south and the Luba and Lunda Kingdoms to the north after invading colonial and African powers displaced local residents into the area around the Zambezi River, in what is now Zambia. In the 1880s, British companies began securing mineral and other economic concessions from various local leaders. The companies eventually claimed control of the region and incorporated it as the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia in 1911. The UK Government took over administrative control from the British South Africa Company in 1924. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred British economic ventures and colonial settlement. 

Northern Rhodesia’s name was changed to Zambia upon independence from the UK in 1964 under independence leader and first President Kenneth KAUNDA. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) into power. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections. Hakainde HICHILEMA was elected president in August 2021.

Zambia - Geography 2023
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Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map referenceAfrica

Total: 752,618 km²
Land: 743,398 km²
Water: 9,220 km²
Comparative: almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries
Total: 6,043.15 km
Border countries: (8) Angola 1,065 km; Botswana 0.15 km; Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km; Malawi 847 km; Mozambique 439 km; Namibia 244 km; Tanzania 353 km; Zimbabwe 763 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Highest point: Mafinga Central 2,330 m
Lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
Mean elevation: 1,138 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Agricultural land: 31.7% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land arable land: 4.8% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)
Agricultural land permanent pasture: 26.9% (2018 est.)
Forest: 66.3% (2018 est.)
Other: 2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,560 km² (2012)

Major rivers
By length in km:
Congo river source (shared with Angola, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of Congo [m]) - 4,700 km; Zambezi river source (shared with Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km
note: - [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds area km²:
Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 km²)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 km²)

Total water withdrawal
Municipal: 290 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Industrial: 130 million cubic meters (2020 est.)
Agricultural: 1.15 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources: 104.8 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)

Note: landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 m³i)

Zambia - People 2023
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Distribution: one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira as shown in this [link]: 20,216,029 (2023 est.)
Growth rate: 2.86% (2023 est.)
Below poverty line: 54.4% (2015 est.)

Noun: Zambian(s)
Adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups: Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages: Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)
Note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family; Chewa and Nyanja are mutually intelligible dialects

Religions: Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile: Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3% annually between 2000 and 2010, and reaching over 3.3% in 2022. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 42.49% (male 4,334,425/female 4,255,464)
15-64 years: 54.77% (male 5,529,526/female 5,541,857)
65 years and over: 2.74% (2023 est.) (male 250,984/female 303,773)

Dependency ratios
Total dependency ratio: 81.8
Youth dependency ratio: 78.7
Elderly dependency ratio: 3.2
Potential support ratio: 31.6 (2021 est.)

Median age
Total: 18.2 years (2023 est.)
Male: 18 years
Female: 18.4 years

Population growth rate: 2.86% (2023 est.)

Birth rate: 34.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution: one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira as shown in this [link]

Urban population: 46.3% of total population (2023)
Rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas
Population: 3.181 million LUSAKA (capital), 763,000 Kitwe (2023)

Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; loss of biodiversity; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
International agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
International agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants
Particulate matter emissions: 16.9 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions: 5.14 megatons (2016 est.)
Methane emissions: 14.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth: 19.2 years (2018 est.)
Note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio: 135 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)
Male: 39.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 66.6 years (2023 est.)
Male: 64.9 years
Female: 68.4 years

Total fertility rate: 4.49 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 49.6% (2018)

Drinking water source
Improved urban: 90.2% of population
Improved rural: 56.6% of population
Improved total: 71.6% of population
Unimproved urban: 9.8% of population
Unimproved rural: 43.4% of population
Unimproved total: 28.4% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure: 5.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density: 1.17 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density: 2 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access
Improved urban:
76.3% of population

rural: 31.9% of population

total: 51.7% of population

Unimproved urban:
23.7% of population

rural: 68.1% of population

total: 48.3% of population (2020 est.)


Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk: very high (2023)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
Animal contact diseases: rabies
Note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Zambia is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity adult prevalence rate: 8.1% (2016)

Alcohol consumption
Per capita total: 3.82 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita beer: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita wine: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita spirits: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)
Per capita other alcohols: 2.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use
Total: 14.4% (2020 est.)
Male: 25.1% (2020 est.)
Female: 3.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.8% (2018/19)

Education expenditures: 3.7% of GDP (2020)

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
Total population: 86.7%
Male: 90.6%
Female: 83.1% (2018)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 26.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 26.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 25.4%

Zambia - Government 2023
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
Conventional short form: Zambia
Former: Northern Rhodesia
Etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe

Government type: presidential republic

Name: Lusaka
Geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Etymology: named after a village called Lusaka, located at Manda Hill, near where Zambia's National Assembly building currently stands; the village was named after a headman (chief) LUSAKASA

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from the UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

History: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
Amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, 2016; note - in late 2020, an amendment which would have altered the structure of the constitution was defeated in the National Assembly

Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
Citizenship by descent only: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
Dual citizenship recognized: yes
Residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Hakainde HICHILEMA (since 24 August 2021); Vice President Mutale NALUMANGO (since 24 August 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Hakainde HICHILEMA (since 24 August 2021); Vice President Mutale NALUMANGO (since 24 August 2021)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
Elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 12 August 2021 (next to be held in 2,026)
Election results:

: Hakainde HICHILEMA elected president; percent of the vote -  Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 57.9%, Edgar LUNGU (PF) 37.3%, other 4.8%

2016: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2%

Legislative branch
Description: unicameral National Assembly (167 seats statutory, 166 seats current; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, and up to 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); 3 ex-officio members elected by National Assembly membership
Elections: last held on 12 August 2021 (next to be held in 2,026)
Election results: percent of vote by party - UPND 53.9%, PF 38.1%, PNUP 0.6%, independent 7.4%; seats by party - UPND 82, PF 62, PNUP 1, independent 11; composition - men 136, women 20, percent of women 13.5%; composition - men 141, women 25, percent of women 15.1%

Judicial branch
Highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
Judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission, which is headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
Subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Dr. Nevers MUMBA]
Party of National Unity and Progress or PNUP [Highvie HAMUDUDU]
Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Chibamba KANYAMA (since 30 June 2023)
In the us chancery: 2,200 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 234-4,009
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
In the us email address and website:


From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. GONZALES (since 16 September 2022)
From the us embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
From the us mailing address: 2,310 Lusaka Place, Washington DC 20,521-2,310
From the us telephone: [260] (0) 211-357-000
From the us FAX: [260] (0) 211-357-224
From the us email address and website:


Flag descriptionflag of Zambia: green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems

National symbols: African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange

National anthem
Name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
Lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
Note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

National heritage
Total World Heritage Sites: 1 (natural)
Selected World Heritage Site locales: [link]

Zambia - Economy 2023
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Economy overview: lower middle-income Sub-Saharan economy; major copper exporter; high public debt is held mostly by China; systemic corruption; one of youngest and fastest growing labor forces; regional hydroelectricity exporter; extreme rural poverty

Real gdp purchasing power parity:
$63.03 billion (2021 est.)
$60.259 billion (2020 est.)
$61.986 billion (2019 est.)

Note: data are in 2017 dollars

Real gdp growth rate:
4.6% (2021 est.)
-2.79% (2020 est.)
1.44% (2019 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use
Household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)
Government consumption: 21% (2017 est.)
Investment in fixed capital: 27.1% (2017 est.)
Investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
Exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.)
Imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: 7.5% (2017 est.)
Industry: 35.3% (2017 est.)
Services: 57% (2017 est.)

Agriculture products

Industries: copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture

Industrial production growth rate: 4.18% (2021 est.)

Labor force: 8.113 million (2021 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
13.03% (2021 est.)
12.85% (2020 est.)
12.52% (2019 est.)

Youth unemployment
Rate ages 15 24 total: 26.1% (2021 est.)
Rate ages 15 24 male: 26.7%
Rate ages 15 24 female: 25.4%

Population below poverty line: 54.4% (2015 est.)

Gini index
Coefficient distribution of family income: 57.1 (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10%: 1.5%
Highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $4.758 billion (2019 est.)
Expenditures: $7.044 billion (2019 est.)
Surplus  or deficit: -7.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt:
103.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
61.93% of GDP (2019 est.)
59.71% of GDP (2018 est.)

Taxes and other revenues: 16.44% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

From forest resources: 4.45% of GDP (2018 est.)
From coal: 0.04% of GDP (2018 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance:
$2.531 billion (2021 est.)
$961.821 million (2020 est.)
$140.712 million (2019 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices:
22.02% (2021 est.)
15.73% (2020 est.)
9.15% (2019 est.)

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance:
$2.531 billion (2021 est.)
$961.821 million (2020 est.)
$140.712 million (2019 est.)

$11.716 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$8.558 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$8.258 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: Switzerland 32%, China 14%, Namibia 12%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9%, Singapore 8% (2020)
Commodities: copper, gold, gemstones, tobacco, cement (2020)

$7.701 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$7.049 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$8.036 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

Partners: South Africa 31%, China 16%, United Arab Emirates 9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6%, India 5% (2020)
Commodities: copper, petroleum, fertilizers, packaged medicines, delivery trucks (2020)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.754 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.203 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$1.449 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

Debt external:
$11.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar - 20.018 (2021 est.)
18.344 (2020 est.)
12.89 (2019 est.)
10.458 (2018 est.)
9.518 (2017 est.)

Zambia - Energy 2023
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Electricity access
Population without electricity: (2020) 12 million
Electrification-total population: 46.6% (2021)
Electrification-urban areas: 85.7% (2021)
Electrification-rural areas: 14.5% (2021)

Electricity production

Electricity consumption: 13,409,685,000 kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity exports: 976 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity imports: 198 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity installed generating capacity: 3.065 million kW (2020 est.)

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources
Fossil fuels: 13% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Solar: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Hydroelectricity: 85.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)
Biomass and waste: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)
Refined petroleum consumption: 25,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil and lease condensate imports: 12,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
Crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum
Products production: 13,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products exports: 371 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Products imports: 10,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas
Production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)
Proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions: 6.798 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From coal and metallurgical coke: 3.186 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From petroleum and other liquids: 3.612 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)
From consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

Energy consumption per capita: 11.595 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Zambia - Communication 2023
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Telephones fixed lines
Total subscriptions: 96,284 (2022 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Telephones mobile cellular
Total subscriptions: 20 million (2021 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2021 est.)

Telephone system

Broadcast media: according to the Independent Broadcast Authority, there are 137 radio stations and 47 television stations in Zambia; out of the 137 radio stations, 133 are private (categorized as either commercial or community radio stations), while 4 are public-owned; state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 2 television channels and 3 radio stations; ZNBC owns 75% shares in GoTV, 40% in MultiChoice, and 40% in TopStar Communications Company, all of which operate in-country

Internet country code: .zm

Internet users
Total: 3.99 million (2021 est.)
Percent of population: 21% (2021 est.)

Broadband fixed subscriptions
Total: 82,317 (2020 est.)
Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.5 (2020 est.)

Zambia - Military 2023
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Military expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2018 est.)

Military and security forces:
Zambia Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service; Defense Force Medical Service

Ministry of Home Affairs and Internal Security: Zambia Police (includes a paramilitary battalion) (2023)

Note: the Zambia National Service is a support organization that also does public work projects

Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age (17 with parental consent) for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription; 12-year enlistment period (7 years active, 5 in the Reserves) (2023)
Note: Zambia had military conscription from 1975-1980

Terrorist groups

Zambia - Transportation 2023
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National air transport system
Number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
Inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
Annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,904 (2018)
Annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 75.08 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: 9J

Airports: 88 (2021)
With paved runways: 8
With paved runways note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)
With unpaved runways: 80
With unpaved runways note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Airports with paved runways: 8
Note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports with unpaved runways: 80
Note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


Pipelines: 771 km oil (2013)

Total: 3,126 km (2014)
Narrow gauge: 3,126 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge
Note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA)

Total: 67,671 km (2018)
Paved: 14,888 km (2018)
Unpaved: 52,783 km (2018)

Waterways: 2,250 km (2010) (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers)

Merchant marine
Total: 2 (2022)
By type: general cargo 1, oil tanker 1

Ports and terminals
River ports: Mpulungu (Zambezi)

Zambia - Transnational issues 2023
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Disputes international:
Zambia-Angola: because the straight-line segments along the left bank (Zambian side) of the Cuando/Kwando River do not conform with the physical alignment of the unstable shoreline, Zambian residents in some areas have settled illegally on sections of shoreline that fall on the Angolan side of the boundary

Zambia-Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC):
boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto

Refugees and internally displaced persons
Refugees country of origin: 59,943 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 8,436 (Burundi) (2023)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis

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