Country ranking for field: environment current issues 1999

Other rankings:  

This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

The WorldWorldlarge areas subject to overpopulation industrial disasters pollution
1flag of AfghanistanAfghanistan0 
2flag of PakistanPakistanwater pollution from raw sewage industrial wastes and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification 
3flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands AntillesNA 
4flag of New CaledoniaNew CaledoniaNA 
5flag of New ZealandNew Zealanddeforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside 
6flag of NicaraguaNicaraguadeforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; Hurricane Mitch damage 
7flag of NigerNigerovergrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations 
8flag of NigeriaNigeriasoil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities 
9flag of NiueNiuetraditional methods of burning brush and trees to clear land for agriculture have threatened soil supplies which are not naturally very abundant 
10flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk IslandNA 
11flag of North KoreaNorth Korealocalized air pollution attributable to inadequate industrial controls; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water 
12flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana Islandscontamination of groundwater on Saipan may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered species conflicts with development 
13flag of NorwayNorwaywater pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions 
14flag of OmanOmanrising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources 
15flag of Pacific OceanPacific Oceanendangered marine species include the dugong sea lion sea otter seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea 
16flag of PalauPalauinadequate facilities for disposal of solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral dredging illegal fishing practices and overfishing 
17flag of Navassa IslandNavassa IslandNA 
18flag of Palmyra AtollPalmyra AtollNA 
19flag of PanamaPanamawater pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation 
20flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinearain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought 
21flag of Paracel IslandsParacel IslandsNA 
22flag of ParaguayParaguaydeforestation 
23flag of PeruPerudeforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes 
24flag of PhilippinesPhilippinesuncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds 
25flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islandsdeforestation 
26flag of PolandPolandsituation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem as is disposal of hazardous wastes 
27flag of PortugalPortugalsoil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution especially in coastal areas 
28flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricoerosion; occasional drought causing water shortages 
29flag of QatarQatarlimited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities 
30flag of RomaniaRomaniasoil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands 
31flag of NepalNepalthe almost total dependence on wood for fuel and cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without replanting has resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
32flag of NauruNaurulimited natural fresh water resources roof storage tanks collect rainwater; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years_mainly by a UK Australia and New Zealand consortium_has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources 
33flag of RwandaRwandadeforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching 
34flag of MaliMalideforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching 
35flag of LatviaLatviaair and water pollution because of a lack of waste conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga and Daugava River heavily polluted; contamination of soil and groundwater with chemicals and petroleum products at military bases 
36flag of LebanonLebanondeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills 
37flag of LesothoLesothopopulation pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing severe soil erosion and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls stores and redirects water to South Africa 
38flag of LiberiaLiberiatropical rain forest subject to deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewage 
39flag of LibyaLibyadesertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project the largest water development scheme in the world is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities 
40flag of LiechtensteinLiechtensteinNA 
41flag of LithuaniaLithuaniacontamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases 
42flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgair and water pollution in urban areas 
43flag of MacauMacauNA 
44flag of MadagascarMadagascarsoil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered 
45flag of MalawiMalawideforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff sewage industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations 
46flag of MalaysiaMalaysiaair pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires 
47flag of MaldivesMaldivesdepletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies 
48flag of MaltaMaltavery limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination 
49flag of NamibiaNamibiavery limited natural fresh water resources; desertification 
50flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islandsinadequate supplies of potable water 
51flag of MartiniqueMartiniqueNA 
52flag of MauritaniaMauritaniaovergrazing deforestation and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which is the only perennial river 
53flag of MauritiusMauritiuswater pollution 
54flag of MayotteMayotteNA 
55flag of MexicoMexiconatural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; serious air pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border 
56flag of Midway IslandsMidway IslandsNA 
57flag of MoldovaMoldovaheavy use of agricultural chemicals including banned pesticides such as DDT has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods 
58flag of MonacoMonacoNA 
59flag of MongoliaMongolialimited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation overgrazing the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification; mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment 
60flag of MontserratMontserratland erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation 
61flag of MoroccoMoroccoland degradation/desertification 
62flag of MozambiqueMozambiquea long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters 
63flag of MyanmarMyanmardeforestation; industrial pollution of air soil and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease 
64flag of RussiaRussiaair pollution from heavy industry emissions of coal-fired electric plants and transportation in major cities; industrial municipal and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination 
65flag of RéunionRéunionNA 
66flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanwater pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices 
67flag of UgandaUgandadraining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching is widespread 
68flag of The GambiaThe Gambiadeforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent 
69flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlandswater pollution in the form of heavy metals organic compounds and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain 
70flag of TogoTogodeforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; recent droughts affecting agriculture 
71flag of TokelauTokelauvery limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand 
72flag of TongaTongadeforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations 
73flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobagowater pollution from agricultural chemicals industrial wastes and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion 
74flag of Tromelin IslandTromelin IslandNA 
75flag of TunisiaTunisiatoxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and presents human health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
76flag of TurkeyTurkeywater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic 
77flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistancontamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals pesticides; salination water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification 
78flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islandslimited natural fresh water resources private cisterns collect rainwater 
79flag of TuvaluTuvalusince there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable all water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage facilities; beachhead erosion because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is very concerned about global increases in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising sea levels which threaten the country's underground water table 
80flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin Islandslack of natural freshwater resources 
81flag of UkraineUkraineinadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant 
82flag of ThailandThailandair pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting 
83flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirateslack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spills 
84flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdomsulfur dioxide emissions from power plants contribute to air pollution; some rivers polluted by agricultural wastes; and coastal waters polluted because of large-scale disposal of sewage at sea 
85flag of United StatesUnited Statesair pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification 
86flag of UruguayUruguayworking with Brazil to monitor and minimize transboundary pollution caused by Brazilian power plant near border; water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal 
87flag of UzbekistanUzbekistandrying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from agricultural chemicals including DDT 
88flag of VanuatuVanuatua majority of the population does not have access to a potable and reliable supply of water; deforestation 
89flag of VenezuelaVenezuelasewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution especially along the Caribbean coast 
90flag of VietnamVietnamlogging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City 
91flag of Wake IslandWake IslandNA 
92flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futunadeforestation 
93flag of West BankWest Bankadequacy of fresh water supply; sewage treatment 
94flag of Western SaharaWestern Saharasparse water and arable land 
95flag of YemenYemenvery limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
96flag of ZambiaZambiaair pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks 
97flag of The BahamasThe Bahamascoral reef decay; solid waste disposal 
98flag of TanzaniaTanzaniasoil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture 
99flag of Saint HelenaSaint HelenaNA 
100flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islandsdeforestation; soil erosion; much of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying 
101flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and NevisNA 
102flag of Saint LuciaSaint Luciadeforestation; soil erosion particularly in the northern region 
103flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadinespollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in some areas pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive 
104flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and MiquelonNA 
105flag of SamoaSamoasoil erosion 
106flag of San MarinoSan MarinoNA 
107flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabiadesertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills 
108flag of SenegalSenegalwildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing 
109flag of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and Montenegropollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube 
110flag of SeychellesSeychelleswater supply depends on catchments to collect rain water 
111flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leonerapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber expansion of cattle grazing and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing 
112flag of SingaporeSingaporeindustrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia 
113flag of SlovakiaSlovakiaair pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests 
114flag of SomaliaSomaliafamine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
115flag of TajikistanTajikistaninadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution 
116flag of South AfricaSouth Africalack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification 
117flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsNA 
118flag of South KoreaSouth Koreaair pollution in large cities; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; driftnet fishing 
119flag of SpainSpainpollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification 
120flag of Spratly IslandsSpratly IslandsNA 
121flag of Sri LankaSri Lankadeforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff 
122flag of SudanSudaninadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification 
123flag of SurinameSurinamedeforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities 
124flag of SvalbardSvalbardNA 
125flag of SwazilandSwazilandlimited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion 
126flag of SwedenSwedenacid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea 
127flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerlandair pollution from vehicle emissions and open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity 
128flag of SyriaSyriadeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from dumping of raw sewage and wastes from petroleum refining; inadequate supplies of potable water 
129flag of TaiwanTaiwanair pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal 
130flag of LaosLaosunexploded ordnance; deforestation; soil erosion; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water 
131flag of KuwaitKuwaitlimited natural fresh water resources; some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification 
132flag of AlbaniaAlbaniadeforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents 
133flag of ChinaChinaair pollution 
134flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islandslimited natural fresh water resources 
135flag of BruneiBruneiseasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia 
136flag of BulgariaBulgariaair pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage heavy metals detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes 
137flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Fasorecent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities population distribution and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation 
138flag of BurundiBurundisoil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation 
139flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verdeovergrazing of livestock and improper land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing 
140flag of CambodiaCambodiaillegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity 
141flag of CameroonCameroonwater-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing 
142flag of CanadaCanadaair pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural industrial mining and forestry activities 
143flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islandsno natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment 
144flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republictap water is not potable; poaching has diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation 
145flag of ChadChadinadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification 
146flag of ChileChileair pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification 
147flag of Christmas IslandChristmas IslandNA 
148flag of BrazilBrazildeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities 
149flag of Clipperton IslandClipperton IslandNA 
150flag of Cocos IslandsCocos Islandsfresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs 
151flag of ColombiaColombiadeforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution especially in Bogota from vehicle emissions 
152flag of ComorosComorossoil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation 
153flag of CongoCongoair pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation 
154flag of Cook IslandsCook IslandsNA 
155flag of Coral Sea IslandsCoral Sea Islandsno permanent fresh water resources 
156flag of Costa RicaCosta Ricadeforestation largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion 
157flag of CroatiaCroatiaair pollution 
158flag of CubaCubapollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation 
159flag of CyprusCypruswater resource problems 
160flag of Czech RepublicCzech Republicair and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests 
161flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoiredeforestation 
162flag of British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryNA 
163flag of Bouvet IslandBouvet IslandNA 
164flag of DenmarkDenmarkair pollution principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides 
165flag of AustraliaAustraliasoil erosion from overgrazing industrial development urbanization and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast the largest coral reef in the world is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources 
166flag of AlgeriaAlgeriasoil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage petroleum refining wastes and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea in particular becoming polluted from oil wastes soil erosion and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water 
167flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoalimited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines 
168flag of AndorraAndorradeforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion 
169flag of AngolaAngolathe overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water 
170flag of AnguillaAnguillasupplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system 
171flag of AntarcticaAntarctica0 
172flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbudawater management_a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources_is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production causing rainfall to run off quickly 
173flag of Arctic OceanArctic Oceanendangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage 
174flag of ArgentinaArgentinaerosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cities; water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use 
175flag of ArmeniaArmeniasoil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade the result of conflict with Azerbaijan has led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan 
176flag of ArubaArubaNA 
177flag of Ashmore and Cartier IslandsAshmore and Cartier IslandsNA 
178flag of Atlantic OceanAtlantic Oceanendangered marine species include the manatee seals sea lions turtles and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US southern Brazil and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea Gulf of Mexico Lake Maracaibo Mediterranean Sea and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea North Sea and Mediterranean Sea 
179flag of AustriaAustriasome forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe 
180flag of BotswanaBotswanaovergrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources 
181flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanlocal scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi 
182flag of BahrainBahraindesertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land periods of drought and dust storms; coastal degradation 
183flag of Baker IslandBaker Islandno natural fresh water resources 
184flag of BangladeshBangladeshmany people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation 
185flag of BarbadosBarbadospollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers 
186flag of Bassas da IndiaBassas da IndiaNA 
187flag of BelarusBelarussoil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine 
188flag of BelgiumBelgiumthe environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities:urbanization dense transportation network industry intense animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities 
189flag of BelizeBelizedeforestation; water pollution from sewage industrial effluents agricultural runoff; Hurricane Mitch damage 
190flag of BeninBeninrecent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification 
191flag of BermudaBermudaasbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space 
192flag of BhutanBhutansoil erosion; limited access to potable water 
193flag of BoliviaBoliviathe clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods 
194flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovinaair pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife 
195flag of Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the Congopoaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in mid-1994 were responsible for significant deforestation soil erosion and wildlife poaching in the eastern part of the country 
196flag of DjiboutiDjiboutiinadequate supplies of potable water; desertification 
197flag of KiribatiKiribatiheavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk 
198flag of IraqIraqgovernment water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a Muslims who have inhabited these areas for thousands of years has been displaced; furthermore the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation 
199flag of GuyanaGuyanawater pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation 
200flag of HaitiHaitiextensive deforestation 
201flag of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald IslandsNA 
202flag of Holy SeeHoly SeeNA 
203flag of HondurasHondurasurban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa 
204flag of Hong KongHong Kongair and water pollution from rapid urbanization 
205flag of Howland IslandHowland Islandno natural fresh water resources 
206flag of HungaryHungary0 
207flag of IcelandIcelandwater pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment 
208flag of IndiaIndiadeforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources 
209flag of Indian OceanIndian Oceanendangered marine species include the dugong seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea Persian Gulf and Red Sea 
210flag of IndonesiaIndonesiadeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires 
211flag of IranIranair pollution especially in urban areas from vehicle emissions refinery operations and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water 
212flag of IrelandIrelandwater pollution especially of lakes from agricultural runoff 
213flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissaudeforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing 
214flag of Isle of ManIsle of ManNA 
215flag of IsraelIsraellimited arable land: and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste chemical fertilizers and pesticides 
216flag of ItalyItalyair pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities 
217flag of JamaicaJamaicadeforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste sewage and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions 
218flag of Jan MayenJan MayenNA 
219flag of JapanJapanair pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere 
220flag of Jarvis IslandJarvis Islandno natural fresh water resources 
221flag of JerseyJerseyNA 
222flag of Johnston AtollJohnston Atollno natural fresh water resources 
223flag of JordanJordanlimited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
224flag of Juan de Nova IslandJuan de Nova IslandNA 
225flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanradioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from faulty irrigation practices 
226flag of KenyaKenyawater pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching 
227flag of Kingman ReefKingman Reefnone 
228flag of GuineaGuineadeforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing overpopulation in forest region 
229flag of GuernseyGuernseyNA 
230flag of DominicaDominicaNA 
231flag of FranceFrancesome forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes agricultural runoff 
232flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republicwater shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage 
233flag of EcuadorEcuadordeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes 
234flag of EgyptEgyptagricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs beaches and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides raw sewage and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources 
235flag of El SalvadorEl Salvadordeforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes; Hurricane Mitch damage 
236flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineatap water is not potable; desertification 
237flag of EstoniaEstoniaair heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1400 natural and manmade lakes the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations 
238flag of EthiopiaEthiopiadeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
239flag of Europa IslandEuropa IslandNA 
240flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland IslandsNA 
241flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe IslandsNA 
242flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of MicronesiaNA 
243flag of FijiFijideforestation; soil erosion 
244flag of FinlandFinlandair pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations 
245flag of French GuianaFrench GuianaNA 
246flag of GuatemalaGuatemaladeforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; Hurricane Mitch damage 
247flag of French PolynesiaFrench PolynesiaNA 
248flag of French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench Southern and Antarctic LandsNA 
249flag of GabonGabondeforestation; poaching 
250flag of Gaza StripGaza Stripdesertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment 
251flag of GeorgiaGeorgiaair pollution particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals 
252flag of GermanyGermanyemissions from coal-burning utilities and industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts 
253flag of GhanaGhanarecent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water 
254flag of GibraltarGibraltarlimited natural freshwater resources; large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rain water 
255flag of Glorioso IslandsGlorioso IslandsNA 
256flag of GreeceGreeceair pollution; water pollution 
257flag of GreenlandGreenlandprotection of the arctic environment; preservation of their traditional way of life including whaling; note_Greenland participates actively in Inuit Circumpolar Conference 
258flag of GrenadaGrenadaNA 
259flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupeNA 
260flag of GuamGuamextirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake an exotic species 
261flag of ZimbabweZimbabwedeforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd_once the largest concentration of the species in the world_has been significantly reduced by poaching 

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