Country ranking for field: disputes international 2023

Other rankings:  

This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

The WorldWorld0
1flag of <em>0 
2flag of Paracel IslandsParacel IslandsParacel Islands-China-Taiwan-Vietnam: occupied by China also claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam 
3flag of NiueNiuenone identified 
4flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk Islandnone identified 
5flag of North KoreaNorth KoreaNorth Korea-China: risking arrest imprisonment and deportation tens of thousands of North Koreans have crossed the 1400-km-long border into China to escape famine economic privation and political oppression; the adjacent areas of northeastern China 
6flag of North MacedoniaNorth MacedoniaNorth Macedonia-Albania: none identified 
7flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana Islandsnone identified 
8flag of NorwayNorwayNorway-Antarctica: Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica 
9flag of OmanOmanOman-Saudi Arabia: none identified 
10flag of Pacific OceanPacific Oceansome maritime disputes 
11flag of PakistanPakistan0 
12flag of PalauPalauPalau-Indonesia: maritime delineation negotiations continue with Philippines Indonesia 
13flag of PanamaPanamaPanama-Colombia: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama 
14flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New GuineaPapua New Guinea-Australia: relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia including goods smuggling illegal narcotics trafficking and squatters and secessionists 
15flag of ParaguayParaguayParaguay-Argentina-Brazil: unruly region at convergence of Paraguay-Argentina-Brazil borders is locus of money laundering smuggling arms and illegal narcotics trafficking and fundraising for violent extremist organizations 
16flag of NigerNigerNiger-Benin-Nigeria: location of Niger-Benin-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved 
17flag of PeruPeruPeru-Bolivia: Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border 
18flag of PhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippines-Taiwan-China-Malaysia-Vietnam: Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef 
19flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islandsnone identified 
20flag of PolandPolandPoland-Belarus-Ukraine: as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine 
21flag of PortugalPortugalPortugal-Spain: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz 
22flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricoillegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage to Puerto Rico each year looking for work 
23flag of QatarQatarnone identified 
24flag of RomaniaRomaniaRomania-Bulgaria: none identified 
25flag of RussiaRussiaRussia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries 
26flag of <em>Rwanda-Burundi: Burundi's Ngozi province and Rwanda's Butare province dispute the two-kilometer-square hilly farmed area of Sabanerwa in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965 around Kibinga Hill in Rwanda's Butare Province 
27flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helenanone identified 
28flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis-Venezuela: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea 
29flag of Saint LuciaSaint LuciaSaint Lucia-Venezuela: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea 
30flag of NigeriaNigeriaNigeria-Benin: none identified 
31flag of NicaraguaNicaraguaNicaragua-El Salvador-Honduras: the 1992 ICJ ruling for El Salvador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; the court ruled rather that the Gulf of Fonseca represents a condominium with control being shared by El Salvador Honduras and Nicaragua; the decision allowed for the possibility that the three nations could divide the waters at a later date if they wished to do so 
32flag of Saint-BarthélemySaint-Barthélemynone identified 
33flag of MauritiusMauritiusMauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands 
34flag of Libya-Algeria: while dormant Libya has long claimed about 32000 km² in southeastern Algeria south of the Libyan town of Ghat   
35flag of LiechtensteinLiechtensteinnone 
36flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaLithuania-Belarus: as of January 2007 ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation 
37flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgnone identified 
38flag of MacauMacaunone identified 
39flag of MadagascarMadagascarMadagascar-France: claims Bassas da India Europa Island Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island 
40flag of MalawiMalawiMalawi-Mozambique: the two countries have held exercises to reaffirm boundaries a number of times 
41flag of MalaysiaMalaysiapiracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait 
42flag of MaldivesMaldivesnone identified 
43flag of MaliMaliMali-Burkina Faso: demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso 
44flag of MaltaMaltanone identified 
45flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall IslandsMarshall Islands-US: claims US territory of Wake Island; the Marshall Islands put its claim on record with the UN in 2016 
46flag of MauritaniaMauritaniaMauritania-Algeria: none identified 
47flag of MexicoMexicoMexico-Belize: Mexico and Belize are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty 
48flag of New ZealandNew ZealandNew Zealand-Antarctica: asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica 
49flag of MoldovaMoldovaMoldova-Romania: none identified 
50flag of MonacoMonaconone identified 
51flag of MongoliaMongolianone identified 
52flag of MontenegroMontenegroMontenegro-Albania: none identified 
53flag of MontserratMontserratnone identified 
54flag of MoroccoMoroccoMorocco-Algeria: Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling 
55flag of MozambiqueMozambiqueMozambique-Eswatini: none identified 
56flag of MyanmarMyanmarover half of Myanmar's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 912000 Rohingya Burmese Muslim minority from Rakhine State living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km 
57flag of NamibiaNamibiaNamibia-Angola-Botswana: concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border 
58flag of NauruNaurunone identified 
59flag of Navassa IslandNavassa IslandNavassa Island 
60flag of NepalNepalNepal-China: China may have constructed 11 buildings in Nepal’s Humla region in 2021 
61flag of New CaledoniaNew CaledoniaNew Caledonia-France-Vanuatu: Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu 
62flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines-Venezuela: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea 
63flag of Saint-MartinSaint-Martinnone identified 
64flag of LesothoLesothoLesotho-South Africa: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho as well as Mozambique and Zimbabwe to assist with controlling cross-border smuggling poaching and illegal migration 
65flag of UkraineUkraineUkraine-Belarus: in 1997 Ukraine and Belarus signed a boundary delimitation treaty; the instruments of ratification were exchanged in 2013; a joint commission should be established to enable the actual demarcation to begin 
66flag of The GambiaThe Gambiaborder issues include attempts to stem refugees cross-border raids arms smuggling and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region as well as from conflicts in other west African states 
67flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlandsnone identified 
68flag of TogoTogoTogo-Benin: in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; Benin’s and Togo’s Adjrala hydroelectric dam project on the Mona River proposed in the 1990s commenced in 2017 with funding from a Chinese bank 
69flag of TokelauTokelauTokelau-American Samoa 
70flag of TongaTongaTonga-Fiji: Fiji does not recognize Tonga’s 1972 claim to the Minerva Reefs and their surrounding waters; the Minerva Reefs’ 200-mile exclusive economic zone includes valuable fishing grounds 
71flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago-Barbados: Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's EEZ 
72flag of TunisiaTunisianone identified 
73flag of TurkeyTurkeyTurkey-Armenia: in 2009 Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; in early 2022 the two countries held talks twice aimed at normalizing relations which could lead to the opening of their land border shut since 1993; in 2000 Turkish authorities complained to UNESCO that blasting from quarries in Armenia was damaging the medieval ruins of Ani on the other side of the Arpacay valley 
74flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanTurkmenistan-Azerbaijan: in January 2021 the two countries reached a preliminary agreement on the joint exploration of an undersea hydrocarbon field containing oil and natural gas in the Caspian Sea 
75flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islandsnone identified 
76flag of TuvaluTuvalunone identified 
77flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin Islandsnone identified 
78flag of Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups rebels armed gangs militias and various government forces that extend across its borders 
79flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab EmiratesUAE-Oman: boundary agreement was signed and ratified with Oman in 2003 for entire border including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves but contents of the agreement and detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published 
80flag of ThailandThailandThailand-Burma: in 2016 Thailand expressed its interest in investing in Burma’s Hatgyi Dam project on the Salween River near the Thai-Burma border; the dam has the potential to supply electricity and water during the drought season; approximately 100000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in nine remote camps in Thailand near the border 
81flag of United KingdomUnited KingdomUK-Argentina: UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina which still claims the Falkland Islands 
82flag of United States Pacific Island Wildlife RefugesUnited States Pacific Island Wildlife Refugesnone identified 
83flag of United StatesUnited StatesUS-Antarctica: the US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica 
84flag of UruguayUruguayUruguay-Argentina: in 2010 the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime which ended the dispute 
85flag of UzbekistanUzbekistanUzbekistan-Afghanistan: none identified 
86flag of VanuatuVanuatuVanuatu-France: Matthew and Hunter Islands two uninhabited islands east of New Caledonia claimed by Vanuatu and France; in January 2019 a French naval mission landed officers on the islands to reinforce France’s sovereignty; in November 2021 French vessels fishing near the islands raised tensions 
87flag of VenezuelaVenezuelaVenezuela-Brazil: none identified 
88flag of VietnamVietnamVietnam-Cambodia: Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; issues include casinos built in Cambodia near the border narcotics trafficking trafficking of women and children petrol smuggling illegal logging and illegal migration; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; in December 2021 leaders from the two countries agreed to fully complete the remaining border demarcation and the upgrading of border checkpoints 
89flag of Wake IslandWake IslandUS-Marshall Islands: in May 2016 the Marshall Islands filed a declaration of authority with the UN over Wake Island which is currently a US territory reaffirming that it considers Wake Island part of its territory 
90flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futunanone identified 
91flag of West BankWest BankWest Bank-Israel: West Bank is Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; in 2002 Israel began construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; as of mid-2020 plans were to continue barrier construction 
92flag of YemenYemenYemen-Oman: none identified 
93flag of ZambiaZambiaZambia-Angola: because the straight-line segments along the left bank 
94flag of The BahamasThe BahamasThe Bahamas-US: in declaring its archipelagic waters and 200 nm EEZ in 1993 legislation The Bahamas did not delimit the outer limits of the EEZ; but in areas where EEZs overlap with neighbors The Bahamas agreed to equidistance as a line of separation; however The Bahamas has yet to define maritime boundaries with any of its neighbors including the US whose Florida coast lays about 70 nm from Grand Bahama Island 
95flag of TanzaniaTanzaniaTanzania-Burundi: none identified 
96flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelonnone identified 
97flag of South AfricaSouth AfricaSouth Africa-Botswana: none identified 
98flag of SamoaSamoanone identified 
99flag of San MarinoSan Marinonone identified 
100flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia-Bahrain: none identified 
101flag of SenegalSenegalSenegal-Guinea-Bissau: rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau 
102flag of SerbiaSerbiaSerbia-Bosnia and Herzegovina: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute 
103flag of SeychellesSeychellesSeychelles-UK: Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands 
104flag of Sierra LeoneSierra LeoneSierra Leone-Guinea: Sierra Leone opposed Guinean troops' continued occupation of Yenga a small village on the Makona River that serves as a border with Guinea; Guinea's forces came to Yenga in the mid-1990s to help the Sierra Leonean military to suppress rebels and to secure their common border but remained there even after both countries signed a 2005 agreement acknowledging that Yenga belonged to Sierra Leone; in 2012 the two sides signed a declaration to demilitarize the area; in 2019 Sierra Leone’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation stated that the dispute over Yenga had been resolved; however at a 2021 ECOWAS meeting Sierra Leone’s President BIO called on the bloc to help resolve an incursion of Guinean troops in Yenga 
105flag of SingaporeSingaporepiracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait 
106flag of Sint MaartenSint Maartennon identified 
107flag of SlovakiaSlovakiaSlovakia-Austria: none identified 
108flag of SloveniaSloveniaSlovenia-Austria: none identified 
109flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islandsfrom 2003 to 2017 at the request of the Solomon Islands Governor-General the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands 
110flag of SomaliaSomaliaSomalia-Djibouti: none identified 
111flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and South Sandwich Islands 
112flag of TajikistanTajikistanTajikistan-Afghanistan: none identified 
113flag of South KoreaSouth KoreaSouth Korea-Japan: South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks 
114flag of South Sudan- Central African Republic: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic over water and grazing rights 
115flag of SpainSpainSpain-Andorra: none identified 
116flag of Spratly IslandsSpratly IslandsTaiwan-Brunei-China-Malaysia-Philippines-Vietnam: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China 
117flag of Sri LankaSri Lankanone identified 
118flag of SudanSudanSudan-Central African Republic: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic over water and grazing rights; Sudan closed its border with the Central African Republic in January 2022 due to security concerns 
119flag of SurinameSurinameSuriname-Brazil: none identified 
120flag of SvalbardSvalbardNorway-Russia: after 40 years of on-again off-again negotiations the two countries signed an agreement in September 2010 defining their maritime boundaries in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean; the border extends the countries’ land border northward beyond the islands in the Barents Sea and into the Arctic Ocean but the exact distance northward was not specified; because the area is considered the high seas the passage of naval and commercial vessels will be unaffected; once their legislatures ratify the agreement both countries will have the green light for oil and natural gas exploration in their newly defined maritime areas; Russia objects to Norway’s establishment in 1977 of the Fishery Protection Zone around the Svalbard Islands extending Norwegian sovereignty to the shelf around the archipelago; Svalbard is strategically important - as a gateway from the Berents Sea to the North Atlantic - and its waters provide rich fishing grounds 
121flag of SwedenSwedennone identified 
122flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerlandnone identified 
123flag of SyriaSyriaSyria-Iraq: none identified 
124flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipenone identified 
125flag of TaiwanTaiwanTaiwan-Brunei-China-Malaysia-Philippines-Vietnam: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea that are thought to have large oil and natural gas reserves as well as being located amidst prime fishing grounds and busy commercial shipping traffic; the Spratly Islands also are in a strategic position for establishing a military presence to monitor activity in the South China Sea; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants 
126flag of LiberiaLiberianone identified 
127flag of LebanonLebanonLebanon-Syria: lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; in March 2021 Syria signed a contract with a Russian company for oil and gas exploration in a maritime area Lebanon claims as its own based on a 2011 map sent to the UN 
128flag of none identified 
129flag of Christmas IslandChristmas Islandnone 
130flag of BruneiBruneiper Letters of Exchange signed in 2009 Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor which divides Brunei; nonetheless Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef 
131flag of BulgariaBulgarianone 
132flag of porous borders contribute to illicit cross-border activities including terrorism and trafficking 
133flag of cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi Hutu other ethnic groups associated political rebels armed gangs and various government forces in the Great Lakes region 
134flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verdenone identified 
135flag of CambodiaCambodiaCambodia-Laos: Cambodia is concerned that Laos' extensive upstream dam construction will affect Cambodian waters downstream 
136flag of   Cameroon-Central African Republic: Cameroon has deployed military troops to the border to counter intrusions from armed militias and bandits 
137flag of CanadaCanadamanaged maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance Beaufort Sea Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people transport and commodities across the international border; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic as stipulated in Article 76 paragraph 8 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 
138flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islandsnone 
139flag of Central African RepublicCentral African RepublicCentral African Republic-South Sudan: periodic violent skirmishes persist among related pastoral populations along the border with South Sudan over water and grazing rights 
140flag of ChadChadover 100000 refugees have fled the 2023 conflict in Sudan to Chad adding to the 600000 mostly Sudanese refugees already in Chad after fleeing previous conflicts especially in the Darfur region; Chad and Sudan share the same ethnic groups along both sides of their common 1400-km-long border; in 2010 relations with Sudan were normalized and the two countries established a joint border monitoring force which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries 
141flag of ChileChileChile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884 but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007 Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica 
142flag of China-India: continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to a number of boundary disputes across the 2000 mile shared border; India does not recognize Pakistan's 1964 ceding to China of the Aksai Chin a territory designated as part of the princely state of Kashmir by the British Survey of India in 1865; China claims most of the Indian state Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas but the US recognizes the state of Arunachal Pradesh as Indian territory 
143flag of Clipperton IslandClipperton Islandnone 
144flag of British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryMauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands; negotiations between 1971 and 1982 resulted in the establishment of a trust fund by the British Government as compensation for the displaced islanders known as Chagossians who were evicted between 1967-73; in 2001 the former inhabitants of the archipelago were granted UK citizenship and the right of return; in 2006 and 2007 British court rulings invalidated the immigration policies contained in the 2004 British Indian Ocean Territory Constitution Order that had excluded the islanders from the archipelago; in 2008 a House of Lords' decision overturned lower court rulings once again denying the right of return to Chagossians; in addition the UK created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein 
145flag of Cocos IslandsCocos Islandsnone 
146flag of ColombiaColombiain December 2007 ICJ allocated San Andres Providencia and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics guerrilla and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia Honduras Nicaragua Jamaica and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank 
147flag of ComorosComorosclaims French-administered Mayotte and challenges France's and Madagascar's claims to Banc du Geyser a drying reef in the Mozambique Channel 
148flag of CongoCongoRepublic of the Congo-Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC): the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area 
149flag of Cook IslandsCook Islandsnone 
150flag of Coral Sea Islands TerritoryCoral Sea Islands Territorynone 
151flag of Costa RicaCosta RicaCosta Rica and Nicaragua regularly file border dispute cases over the delimitations of the San Juan River and the northern tip of Calero Island to the International Court of Justice 
152flag of CroatiaCroatiadispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009 however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Croatia joined the Schengen Zone on 1 January 2023 
153flag of CubaCubaUS Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease 
154flag of CyprusCyprushostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community 
155flag of Czech RepublicCzech Republicnone 
156flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoiredisputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana 
157flag of Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of Congo 
158flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islandsnone 
159flag of BrazilBrazilBrazil-Bolivia: the Roboré Accord of March 29 1958 placed the long-disputed Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-Mirim a fluvial island on the Río Mamoré between the two towns of Guajará-Mirim 
160flag of DjiboutiDjiboutiDjibouti-Somalia: Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia 
161flag of </em>Australia-Indonesia: Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef  
162flag of AlgeriaAlgeriaAlgeria-Morocco: the Algerian-Moroccan land border remains closed; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; the National Liberation Front's 
163flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoanone identified 
164flag of Andorra-France: none identified 
165flag of AngolaAngolaAngola-Democratic Republic of Congo 
166flag of AnguillaAnguillanone identified 
167flag of AntarcticaAntarcticathe Antarctic Treaty freezes and most states do not recognize the land and maritime territorial claims made by Argentina Australia Chile France New Zealand Norway and the UK 
168flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbudanone identified 
169flag of Arctic OceanArctic OceanCanada and the US dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; Denmark 
170flag of Argentina-Bolivia: contraband smuggling human trafficking and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia 
171flag of local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous undemarcated Armenian Azerbaijani and Georgian borders 
172flag of ArubaArubanone identified 
173flag of Ashmore and Cartier IslandsAshmore and Cartier IslandsAustralia-Indonesia: Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef 
174flag of Atlantic OceanAtlantic Oceansome maritime disputes 
175flag of AustriaAustrianone identified 
176flag of Bouvet IslandBouvet Islandnone identified 
177flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanArmenia-Azerbaijan: tensions existed for years over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan seized part of the enclave during six weeks of fighting in 2020 and the remainder in a short conflict in September 2023; in October 2023 Baku and Yerevan began preliminary discussions on a peace treaty the demarcation of borders and full normalization of relations; nevertheless concerns persist in Armenia that Azerbaijan could invade in order to force the establishment of a transit corridor to the exclave of Naxicvan 
178flag of BahrainBahrainnone identified 
179flag of BangladeshBangladeshBangladesh-Burma: the border area has historically been an area of conflict and instability; militants particularly ethnic armed groups 
180flag of BarbadosBarbadosBarbados-Venezuela 
181flag of Belarus-Latvia: boundary demarcated with Latvia 
182flag of BelgiumBelgiumnone identified 
183flag of Belize-Guatemala: demarcated but insecure boundary due to Guatemala’s claims to more than half of Belizean territory; a Line of Adjacency operates in lieu of an international boundary to control influx of Guatemalan squatters onto Belizean territory as well as smuggling narcotics trafficking and human trafficking for sexual exploitation and debt bondage; Belize and Honduras 12-nm territorial sea claims close off Guatemalan access to Caribbean in the Bahia de Amatique; maritime boundary remains unresolved pending further negotiation 
184flag of Benin-Burkina Faso: Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso near the town of Koualau/Kourou 
185flag of BermudaBermudanone identified 
186flag of Bhutan-China: lacking any treaty describing the boundary Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies the most contentious of which lie in Bhutan's west along China’s Chumbi salient 
187flag of BoliviaBoliviacontraband smuggling human trafficking and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors 
188flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina-Serbia: Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute. 
189flag of BotswanaBotswananone identified 
190flag of DenmarkDenmarkIceland the UK and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; in 2019 Denmark signed continental shelf delimitation agreements with Iceland and Norway to parts of the continental shelf in the Ægir Basin which is located north of the Faroe Islands 
191flag of DominicaDominicaDominica is the only Caribbean state to challenge Venezuela's sovereignty claim over Aves Island and joins the other island nations in challenging whether the feature sustains human habitation a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ and continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea 
192flag of LatviaLatviaLatvia-Belarus: Belarus and Latvia signed joint demarcation map in September 2008 
193flag of Isle of ManIsle of Mannone identified 
194flag of Haiti-Dominican Republic: the Dominican Republic has increased security along the Haitian border to prevent unauthorized migration and smuggling including constructing a fence and deploying military troops; some disputes over border limits particularly along the Massacre River 
195flag of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald Islandsnone identified 
196flag of Holy SeeHoly Seenone identified 
197flag of HondurasHondurasHonduras-El Salvador: International Court of Justice 
198flag of Hong KongHong Kongthe Frontier Closed Area was established in 1951 as a buffer zone between Hong Kong and mainland China to prevent illegal migration and the smuggling of goods  
199flag of HungaryHungaryHungary and Slovakia have a long-running dispute over the implementation of a 1970s Soviet-era hydropower project on the Danube the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros project  
200flag of IcelandIcelandin 2019 Denmark signed continental shelf delimitation agreements with Iceland and Norway to parts of the continental shelf in the Ægir Basin which is located north of the Faroe Islands 
201flag of IndiaIndiaIndia-China: India’s relations with China have been fraught for decades; issues include disputed frontiers as well as China’s support for Pakistan India’s key rival and China’s growing influence in India’s periphery including in the Indian Ocean; in 2020 the two engaged in the worst bilateral border conflict since the Sino-Indian War of 1962; despite ongoing negotiations including nearly 20 rounds of military-to-military talks as of 2023 tensions at the disputed border known as the Line of Actual Control 
202flag of Indian OceanIndian Oceansome maritime disputes 
203flag of Indonesia-Australia: all borders have been agreed upon bilaterally but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches 
204flag of IranIranIran-Afghanistan: Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey 
205flag of Iraq-Iran: Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf 
206flag of IrelandIrelandIreland-Denmark: Ireland Iceland and the UK dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Iceland Norway and the Faroe Islands signed an agreement in 2019 extending the Faroe Islands’ northern continental shelf area 
207flag of IsraelIsraelIsrael-Gaza Strip: Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005 
208flag of Guinea-Liberia: the border is not disputed and there is joint border management although the border is porous and there have been occasional disputes relating to military encroachments and use of the boundary rivers 
209flag of ItalyItalyItaly-Austria-Switzerland: borders are shifting because glacier peaks that had served as a natural boundary are melting 
210flag of JamaicaJamaicanone identified 
211flag of Jan MayenJan Mayennone identified 
212flag of JapanJapanJapan-China-Taiwan: the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands 
213flag of JerseyJerseynone identified 
214flag of JordanJordanJordan-Iraq: the two countries signed a border agreement in 1984; Jordan has ratified the treaty but it has not been confirmed that Iraq has ratified it; as of 2010 the agreement had not been registered with the UN 
215flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanKazakhstan-China: in 1998 Kazakhstan and China agreed to split two disputed border areas nearly evenly; demarcation with China completed in 2002 
216flag of KenyaKenyaKenya-Ethiopia: their border was demarcated in the 1950s and approved in 1970; in 2012 Kenya and Ethiopia agreed to redemarcate their boundary following disputes over beacons and cross-border crime 
217flag of KiribatiKiribatinone identified 
218flag of KosovoKosovoKosovo-Albania: none identified 
219flag of KuwaitKuwaitKuwait-Iraq: no maritime boundary exists with Iraq in the Persian Gulf; Kuwait has called on Iraq to resolve the domestic legal status of the 2012 Kuwait-Iraq Agreement to regulate maritime navigation in Khor Abdullah and ensure that the agreement remains in force   
220flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan-China: a 2009 treaty settled a border dispute with Kyrgyzstan receiving the Khan Tengri Peak and Kyrgyzstan ceding to China the Uzengi-Kush area 
221flag of LaosLaosLaos-Burma: none identified 
222flag of Guyana-Venezuela: Venezuela claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River and maintains that Guyana does not have jurisdiction to grant concessions in maritime areas off the Essequibo waters which are potentially rich in hydrocarbon resources; Guyana submitted the dispute to the International Court of Justice in 2018; the ICJ ruled that it had jurisdiction to hear the case in December 2020; in September 2021 Venezuelan officials issued a statement reasserting dominion over three-quarters of Guyana which Guyana stated was a threat to its sovereignty and territorial integrity; in December 2023 the Venezuelan Government conducted a public referendum asking its citizens to support establishing a state in the disputed territory granting citizenship to current and future area residents and rejecting the jurisdiction of the ICJ 
223flag of GuernseyGuernseynone identified 
224flag of Dominican RepublicDominican RepublicDominican Republic-Haiti: unauthorized migration and smuggling from impoverished and unstable Haiti has led to occasional border tensions and increased security by the Dominican Republic including the construction of a fence and the deployment of military troops 
225flag of FijiFijiFiji-Tonga: Fiji does not recognize Tonga’s 1972 claim to the Minerva Reefs and their surrounding waters; the Minerva Reefs’ 200-mile exclusive economic zone includes valuable fishing grounds 
226flag of East TimorEast TimorTimor-Leste-Australia: Timor-Leste and Australia reached agreement on a treaty delimiting a permanent maritime boundary in March 2018; both countries ratified the treaty in August 2019 
227flag of EcuadorEcuadororganized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border 
228flag of Egypt-Gaza Strip: constructed a barrier and established a buffer zone on its border with Gaza to halt the passage of weapons and militants through cross-border smuggling tunnels and pressure the Palestinian HAMAS terrorist group that runs the Gaza Strip 
229flag of El SalvadorEl SalvadorEl Salvador-Honduras: International Court of Justice 
230flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea-Cameroon: in 2002 ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation 
231flag of EritreaEritreaEritrea-Ethiopia: both agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission's 
232flag of EstoniaEstoniaRussia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement but Russia in June 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia often criticizes the Estonian Government over alleged mistreatment of ethnic Russians in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia 
233flag of EswatiniEswatiniEswatini has stable relations with South Africa but claims large sections of South African territory based on the historic extent of Swazi control during the early 19th century; despite periodic negotiations there has been little progress in resolving the dispute  
234flag of EthiopiaEthiopiaEthiopia-Eritrea: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's 
235flag of European UnionEuropean Unionas a political union the EU has no border disputes with neighboring countries but Estonia has no land boundary agreements with Russia Slovenia disputes its land and maritime boundaries with Croatia and Spain has territorial and maritime disputes with Morocco and with the UK over Gibraltar; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 23 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements or "acquis" 
236flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland IslandsArgentina which claims the islands in its constitution and briefly occupied them by force in 1982 agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks 
237flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe Islandsbecause anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have not been realized earlier Faroese proposals for full independence have been deferred; Iceland the UK and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim to UNCLOS that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm 
238flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesianone identified 
239flag of FinlandFinlandvarious groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands 
240flag of <em>Guatemala-Belize: demarcated but disputed boundary due to Guatemala’s claims to more than half of Belizean territory; line of Adjacency operates in lieu of an international boundary to control influx of Guatemalan squatters onto Belizean territory; smuggling narcotics trafficking and human trafficking are also problems; the dispute was referred to the ICJ in 2019 for binding resolution; the 12-nm territorial sea claims of Belize and Honduras close off Guatemalan access to Caribbean in the Bahia de Amatique; maritime boundary remains unresolved pending further negotiation 
241flag of FranceFranceMadagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India Europa Island Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica 
242flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesianone identified 
243flag of French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench claim to "Adelie Land" in Antarctica is not recognized by the US; 
244flag of GabonGabondispute with Equatorial Guinea over Mbane Island and lesser islands in the Corisco Bay submitted to ICJ in 2016 
245flag of borders with both Egypt and Israel are sealed with barriers fences and walls; Israel completed an underground anti-tunnel barrier in 2021 
246flag of GeorgiaGeorgiaRussia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Russia maintains military bases and troops in Abkhazia and South Ossetia 
247flag of GermanyGermanynone identified 
248flag of GhanaGhanadisputed maritime border with Cote d'Ivoire was resolved in 2017 through a decision of a Special Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 
249flag of GibraltarGibraltarthe status of Gibraltar and how to police the border with Spain has been a point of contention since the UK's 2016 vote to leave the EU; the peninsula was excluded from the exit deal reached between Britain and the EU; informal arrangements are in place while the two sides negotiate over Gibraltar which overwhelmingly backed remaining in the EU in the Brexit referendum 
250flag of GreeceGreeceGreece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime air territorial and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece has a security wall along a portion of its land border with Turkey to deter border crossings by migrants and has announced intentions to extend the wall along the entire border 
251flag of GreenlandGreenlandin 2022 Canada and Denmark signed an agreement resolving a managed dispute over uninhabited Tartupaluk/Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland 
252flag of GrenadaGrenadanone identified 
253flag of GuamGuamnone identified 
254flag of Zimbabwe-Mozambique: none identified 

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