Country ranking for field: maritime claims 1994

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This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:|territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the territorial seas of both states are measured; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.|contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea); where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the contiguous zone of both states are measured.|exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.|continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; wherever the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline, coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350 nautical miles from the baseline or 100 nautical miles from the 2,500-meter isobath, which is a line connecting points of 2,500 meters in depth; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.|exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS, some states (e.g., the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used; the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ or 200 nautical miles.

The WorldWorldcontiguous zone:24 nm claimed by most but can vary; continental shelf:200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of exploitation others claim 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin; exclusive fishing zone:200 nm claimed by most but can vary; exclusive economic zone:200 nm claimed by most but can vary; territorial sea:12 nm claimed by most but can vary
1flag of AfghanistanAfghanistan0 
2flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guineameasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
3flag of San MarinoSan Marinonone; landlocked 
4flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelonexclusive economic zone:200 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
5flag of RéunionRéunionexclusive economic zone:200 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
6flag of RwandaRwandanone; landlocked 
7flag of PhilippinesPhilippinesmeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
8flag of PeruPeruterritorial sea:200 nm 
9flag of ParaguayParaguaynone; landlocked 
10flag of Paracel IslandsParacel IslandsNA 
11flag of PanamaPanamaterritorial sea:200 nm 
12flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leoneterritorial sea:200 nm 
13flag of NigerNigernone; landlocked 
14flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antillesexclusive fishing zone:12 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
15flag of NepalNepalnone; landlocked 
16flag of MongoliaMongolianone; landlocked 
17flag of MonacoMonacoterritorial sea:12 nm 
18flag of MoldovaMoldovanone; landlocked 
19flag of MaliMalinone; landlocked 
20flag of MalawiMalawinone; landlocked 
21flag of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and Montenegroterritorial sea:12 nm 
22flag of SlovakiaSlovakianone; landlocked 
23flag of MacauMacaunot specified 
24flag of UgandaUgandanone; landlocked 
25flag of ZambiaZambianone; landlocked 
26flag of ZaireZaireexclusive fishing zone:200 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
27flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoaexclusive economic zone:200 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
28flag of Western SaharaWestern Saharacontingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue 
29flag of West BankWest Banknone; landlocked 
30flag of VanuatuVanuatumeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
31flag of UzbekistanUzbekistannone; landlocked 
32flag of UkraineUkraineNA 
33flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanlandlocked but boundaries in the Caspian Sea with Azerbaijan Kazakhstan and Iran are under negotiations 
34flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islandsmeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
35flag of TunisiaTunisiaterritorial sea:12 nm 
36flag of TajikistanTajikistannone; landlocked 
37flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipemeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines; exclusive economic zone:200 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
38flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerlandnone; landlocked 
39flag of SwazilandSwazilandnone; landlocked 
40flag of Spratly IslandsSpratly IslandsNA 
41flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsterritorial sea:12 nm 
42flag of SomaliaSomaliaterritorial sea:200 nm 
43flag of MacedoniaMacedonianone; landlocked 
44flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgnone; landlocked 
45flag of AlgeriaAlgeriaterritorial sea:12 nm 
46flag of BoliviaBolivianone; landlocked 
47flag of ChadChadnone; landlocked 
48flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republicnone; landlocked 
49flag of CameroonCameroonterritorial sea:50 nm 
50flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verdemeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
51flag of BurundiBurundinone; landlocked 
52flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Fasonone; landlocked 
53flag of Bouvet IslandBouvet Islandterritorial sea:4 nm 
54flag of BotswanaBotswananone; landlocked 
55flag of BhutanBhutannone; landlocked 
56flag of Coral Sea IslandsCoral Sea Islandsexclusive fishing zone:200 nm; territorial sea:3 nm 
57flag of BeninBeninterritorial sea:200 nm 
58flag of BelizeBelizeterritorial sea:12 nm in the north 3 nm in the south 
59flag of BelarusBelarusnone; landlocked 
60flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanNA 
61flag of AustriaAustrianone; landlocked 
62flag of ArmeniaArmenianone; landlocked 
63flag of AntarcticaAntarcticanone but see entry on International Disputes 
64flag of AndorraAndorranone; landlocked 
65flag of CongoCongoterritorial sea:200 nm 
66flag of Czech RepublicCzech Republicnone; landlocked 
67flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaterritorial sea:12 nm 
68flag of HungaryHungarynone; landlocked 
69flag of LiechtensteinLiechtensteinnone; landlocked 
70flag of LesothoLesothonone; landlocked 
71flag of LebanonLebanonterritorial sea:12 nm 
72flag of LaosLaosnone; landlocked 
73flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstannone; landlocked 
74flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanlandlocked but borders with Russia Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea are under negotiation at present 
75flag of JordanJordanterritorial sea:3 nm 
76flag of IndonesiaIndonesiameasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
77flag of Holy SeeHoly Seenone; landlocked 
78flag of El SalvadorEl Salvadorterritorial sea:200 nm; overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm 
79flag of GreenlandGreenlandexclusive fishing zone:200 nm; territorial sea:3 nm 
80flag of GeorgiaGeorgianote:12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol concerning the sea boundary between the two states in the Black Sea; Georgia claims the coastline along the Black Sea as its international waters although it cannot control this area and the Russian navy and commercial ships transit freely 
81flag of Gaza StripGaza StripIsraeli occupied with status to be determined 
82flag of French GuianaFrench Guianaexclusive economic zone:200 nm; territorial sea:12 nm 
83flag of FijiFijimeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines 
84flag of EthiopiaEthiopianone - landlocked 
85flag of EstoniaEstoniaterritorial sea:12 nm 
86flag of EritreaEritreaterritorial sea:12 nm 
87flag of ZimbabweZimbabwenone; landlocked 

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