Country ranking for field: constitution 1989

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This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” The amendments subfield summarizes the process of amending a country’s constitution – from proposal through passage – and the dates of amendments, which are treated in the same manner as the constitution dates. Where appropriate, summaries are composed from English-language translations of non-English constitutions, which derive from official or non-official translations or machine translators.|The main steps in creating a constitution and amending it usually include the following steps: proposal, drafting, legislative and/or executive branch review and approval, public referendum, and entry into law. In many countries this process is lengthy. Terms commonly used to describe constitutional changes are “amended,” “revised,” or “reformed.” In countries such as South Korea and Turkmenistan, sources differ as to whether changes are stated as new constitutions or are amendments/revisions to existing ones.|A few countries including Canada, Israel, and the UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed. Some special regions (Hong Kong, Macau) and countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia) use the term “basic law” instead of constitution.|A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar (UK), Greenland and Faroe Islands (Denmark), Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten (Netherlands), and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US) have their own constitutions.

1flag of Isle of ManIsle of Man1961 
2flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islands1959 revised 1972 
3flag of AustriaAustria1920 revised 1929 
4flag of MalaysiaMalaysia31 August 1957 amended 16 September 1963 when Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia 
5flag of GuatemalaGuatemala31 May 1985 effective 14 January 1986; Constitution came into effect 1966 but suspended following March 1982 coup; Constituent Assembly elected in July 1984 completed drafting new Constitution and other electoral laws in June 1985 
6flag of Sri LankaSri Lanka31 August 1978 
7flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago31 August 1976 
8flag of BarbadosBarbados30 November 1966 
9flag of TogoTogo30 December 1979 effective 13 January 1980 
10flag of GibraltarGibraltar30 May 1969 
11flag of VanuatuVanuatu30 July 1980 
12flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antilles29 December 1954 Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands as amended 
13flag of BruneiBrunei29 September 1959 
14flag of IrelandIreland29 December 1937; Constitution adopted 1937 
15flag of NauruNauru29 January 1968 
16flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerland29 May 1874 
17flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledonia28 September 1958 
18flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelon28 September 1958 
19flag of RéunionRéunion28 September 1958 
20flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia28 September 1958 
21flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupe28 September 1958 
22flag of PeruPeru28 July 1980 
23flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republic28 November 1966 
24flag of French GuianaFrench Guiana28 September 1958 
25flag of MayotteMayotte28 September 1958 
26flag of FranceFrance28 September 1958 amended concerning election of president in 1962 
27flag of MartiniqueMartinique28 September 1958 
28flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna28 September 1958 
29flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines27 October 1979 
30flag of CambodiaCambodia27 June 1981 
31flag of HaitiHaiti27 August 1983 suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March 1987 
32flag of AlbaniaAlbania27 December 1976 
33flag of UruguayUruguay27 November 1966 effective February 1967 suspended 27 June 1973 new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980 
34flag of MaltaMalta26 April 1974 effective 2 June 1974 
35flag of LebanonLebanon26 May 1926 
36flag of BahrainBahrain26 May 1973 effective 6 December 1973 
37flag of IndiaIndia26 January 1950 
38flag of ZambiaZambia25 August 1973 
39flag of PortugalPortugal25 April 1976 revised 30 October 1982; new discussions on constitutional revision began October 1987 
40flag of MozambiqueMozambique25 June 1975 
41flag of SomaliaSomalia25 August 1979 presidential approval 23 September 1979 
42flag of TaiwanTaiwan25 December 1947 
43flag of CubaCuba24 February 1976 
44flag of GhanaGhana24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981 
45flag of The GambiaThe Gambia24 April 1970 
46flag of ZaireZaire24 June 1967 amended August 1974 revised 15 February 1978 
47flag of BeninBenin23 May 1977 
48flag of VenezuelaVenezuela23 January 1961 
49flag of IraqIraq22 September 1968 effective 16 July 1970 
50flag of PolandPoland22 July 1952 
51flag of ThailandThailand22 December 1978 
52flag of Saint LuciaSaint Lucia22 February 1979 
53flag of GabonGabon21 February 1961 revised 15 April 1975 
54flag of MadagascarMadagascar21 December 1975 
55flag of ZimbabweZimbabwe21 December 1979 
56flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republic21 November 1986 
57flag of YugoslaviaYugoslavia21 February 1974 
58flag of RomaniaRomania21 August 1965 
59flag of BelizeBelize21 September 1981 
60flag of El SalvadorEl Salvador20 December 1983 
61flag of BurundiBurundi20 November 1981; on taking power Maj. Pierre Buyoya suspended the Constitution and formed a Military Council for National Salvation 
62flag of MauritaniaMauritania20 May 1961 abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978; provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in 1981; new constitutional charter published 27 February 1985 
63flag of CameroonCameroon20 May 1972; judicial review by Supreme Court when a question of constitutionality is referred to it by the president 
64flag of AlgeriaAlgeria19 November 1976 effective 22 November 1976 
65flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis19 September 1983 
66flag of GrenadaGrenada19 December 1973 
67flag of HungaryHungary18 August 1949 effective 20 August 1949 revised 19 April 1972 
68flag of VietnamVietnam18 December 1980 
69flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlands17 February 1983 
70flag of MacauMacau17 February 1976 Organic Law of Macau 
71flag of LuxembourgLuxembourg17 October 1868 occasional revisions 
72flag of NorwayNorway17 May 1814 modified in 1884 
73flag of United StatesUnited States17 September 1787 effective 21 June 1788 
74flag of MonacoMonaco17 December 1962 
75flag of RwandaRwanda17 December 1978 
76flag of FinlandFinland17 July 1919 
77flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau16 May 1984 
78flag of CyprusCyprus16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently 
79flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea16 September 1975 
80flag of KuwaitKuwait16 November 1962 
81flag of IcelandIceland16 June 1944 effective 17 June 1944 
82flag of BulgariaBulgaria16 May 1971 effective 18 May 1971 
83flag of NepalNepal16 December 1962 
84flag of TanzaniaTanzania15 March 1984 
85flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea15 August 1982 
86flag of ChadChad14 April 1962 
87flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leone14 June 1978 
88flag of GuineaGuinea14 May 1982 suspended after coup of 3 April 1984 
89flag of EthiopiaEthiopia12 September 1987 
90flag of SyriaSyria12 March 1973 
91flag of MauritiusMauritius12 March 1968 
92flag of SudanSudan12 April 1973 suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution 10 October 1985 
93flag of KenyaKenya12 December 1963 amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 and 1983 
94flag of KiribatiKiribati12 July 1979 
95flag of PanamaPanama11 October 1972; with major reforms adopted in April 1983 
96flag of LibyaLibya11 December 1969 amended 2 March 1977 
97flag of HondurasHonduras11 January 1982 effective 20 January 1982 
98flag of EgyptEgypt11 September 1971 
99flag of AngolaAngola11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978 and 11 August 1980 
100flag of GreeceGreece11 June 1975 
101flag of ChileChile11 September 1980 effective 11 March 1981; provides for continued rule of current regime until March 1990 with direct presidential and congressional elections scheduled for 14 December 1989 
102flag of FijiFiji10 October 1970 
103flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesia10 May 1979 
104flag of The BahamasThe Bahamas10 July 1973 
105flag of PakistanPakistan10 April 1973 suspended 5 July 1977 restored 30 December 1985 
106flag of MoroccoMorocco10 March 1972 
107flag of EcuadorEcuador10 August 1979 
108flag of Costa RicaCosta Rica9 November 1949 
109flag of AustraliaAustralia9 July 1900 effective 1 January 1901 
110flag of San MarinoSan Marino8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution 
111flag of NigerNiger8 November 1960 suspended after coup of 15 April 1974 
112flag of BermudaBermuda8 June 1968 
113flag of UgandaUganda8 September 1967 suspended following coup of 27 July 1985; in process of constitutional revision 
114flag of CongoCongo8 July 1979 
115flag of JordanJordan8 January 1952 
116flag of TurkeyTurkey7 November 1982 
117flag of BelgiumBelgium7 February 1831 last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the Belgian state 
118flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verde7 September 1980 amended 12 February 1981 and December 1988 
119flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands7 July 1978 
120flag of GuyanaGuyana6 October 1980 
121flag of MalawiMalawi6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974 
122flag of MongoliaMongolia6 July 1960 
123flag of LiberiaLiberia6 January 1986 
124flag of JamaicaJamaica6 August 1962 
125flag of SpainSpain6 December 1978 effective 29 December 1978 
126flag of BrazilBrazil5 October 1988 
127flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe5 November 1975 approved 15 December 1982 
128flag of LiechtensteinLiechtenstein5 October 1921 
129flag of DenmarkDenmark5 June 1953 
130flag of SeychellesSeychelles5 June 1979 
131flag of MexicoMexico5 February 1917 
132flag of MaldivesMaldives4 June 1964 
133flag of TongaTonga4 November 1875 revised 1 January 1967 
134flag of ChinaChina4 December 1982 
135flag of ColombiaColombia4 August 1886 with amendments codified in 1946 and 1968 
136flag of Cook IslandsCook Islands4 August 1965 
137flag of LesothoLesotho4 October 1966 suspended January 1970 
138flag of BangladeshBangladesh4 November 1972 effective 16 December 1972 suspended following coup of 24 March 1982 restored 10 November 1986; civil liberties curtailed under 27 November 1987 State of Emergency Declaration 
139flag of JapanJapan3 May 1947 
140flag of South AfricaSouth Africa3 September 1984 
141flag of SingaporeSingapore3 June 1959 amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution 
142flag of SenegalSenegal3 March 1963 last revised in 1984 
143flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire3 November 1960 
144flag of MyanmarMyanmar3 January 1974 
145flag of DominicaDominica3 November 1978 
146flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands3 October 1985 
147flag of PhilippinesPhilippines2 February 1987 effective 11 February 1987 
148flag of IranIran2-3 December 1979 
149flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates2 December 1971 
150flag of BoliviaBolivia2 February 1967 
151flag of MaliMali2 June 1974 effective 19 June 1979 
152flag of ItalyItaly1 January 1948 
153flag of NigeriaNigeria1 October 1979 amended 9 February 1984 
154flag of TunisiaTunisia1 June 1959 
155flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoa1 January 1962 
156flag of AnguillaAnguilla1 April 1982 
157flag of TuvaluTuvalu1 October 1978 
158flag of ArubaAruba1 January 1986 
159flag of ComorosComoros1 October 1978 amended October 1982 and January 1985 
160flag of MontserratMontserrat1 January 1960 
161flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helena1 January 1967 
162flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda1 November 1981 
163flag of ArgentinaArgentina1 May 1853 
164flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands1 May 1979 
165flag of SwedenSweden1 January 1975 
166flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands1 June 1977 
167flag of TokelauTokelauadministered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 as amended in 1970 
168flag of BhutanBhutanno written constitution or bill of rights 
169flag of NicaraguaNicaraguaJanuary 1987 
170flag of GuamGuamOrganic Act of 1 August 1950 
171flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islandsconstitution introduced on 30 August 1976 suspended in 1986 and at present a Constitutional Commission is reviewing its contents 
172flag of Holy SeeHoly SeeApostolic Constitution of 1967 
173flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdomunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
174flag of LaosLaosdraft constitution under discussion since 1976 
175flag of AndorraAndorranone; some pareatges and decrees mostly custom and usage 
176flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoaratified 1966 in effect 1967 
177flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin IslandsRevised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the constitution 
178flag of Hong KongHong Kongunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
179flag of BotswanaBotswanaMarch 1965 effective 30 September 1966 
180flag of QatarQatarprovisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970 
181flag of NiueNiueno formal written constitution 
182flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk IslandNorfolk Island Act of 1957 
183flag of North KoreaNorth Koreaadopted 1948 revised 27 December 1972 
184flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsCovenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 
185flag of OmanOmannone 
186flag of IndonesiaIndonesiaAugust 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959 
187flag of New ZealandNew Zealandno formal written constitution; consists of various documents including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987 but has not been enacted 
188flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn IslandsLocal Government Ordinance of 1964 
189flag of DjiboutiDjiboutipartial constitution ratified January 1981 by National Assembly 
190flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe IslandsDanish 
191flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricoratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952 
192flag of JerseyJerseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
193flag of GreenlandGreenlandDanish 
194flag of IsraelIsraelno formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment 
195flag of Cocos IslandsCocos IslandsCocos 
196flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabianone; governed according to Sharia 
197flag of GuernseyGuernseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
198flag of Christmas IslandChristmas IslandChristmas Island Act of 1958 
199flag of South KoreaSouth Koreaapproved by voters on 27 October 1987 to take effect on 25 February 1988; requires direct presidential elections and protects human rights 
200flag of CanadaCanadaamended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs 
201flag of SurinameSurinameratified 30 September 1987 
202flag of SwazilandSwazilandnone; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but has not been formally presented to the people 
203flag of NamibiaNamibiaJuly 1987 
204flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Fasonone; constitution of 27 November 1977 was abolished following coup of 25 November 1980 
205flag of AfghanistanAfghanistanadopted 30 November 1987 

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