Country ranking for field: telephone system 2000

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This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:|Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).|Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).|CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.|Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange.|Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.|Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.|Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).|DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).|Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).|Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.|GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.|HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.|Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.|Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC).|Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.|Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground.|Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.|Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system.|Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.|Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.|NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).|Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network.|Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.|PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).|SAFE - South African Far East Cable|Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.|Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.|Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).|SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.|Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances.|Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.|Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications.|Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.|TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.|Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.|Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.|Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.|Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.|Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.|UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range.|VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.

1flag of ArgentinaArgentina12000 
2flag of Johnston AtollJohnston Atoll13 outgoing and 10 incoming commercial lines; adequate telecommunications 
3flag of NigeriaNigeriaan inadequate system further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made 
4flag of NorwayNorwayhigh-quality domestic and international telephone telegraph and telex services 
5flag of OmanOmanmodern system consisting of open wire microwave and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable 
6flag of PakistanPakistanthe domestic system is mediocre but improving; service is adequate for government and business use in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988 the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population 
7flag of PanamaPanamadomestic and international facilities well developed 
8flag of PhilippinesPhilippinesgood international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate 
9flag of AngolaAngolatelephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links 
10flag of NigerNigersmall system of wire radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area 
11flag of PolandPoland0 
12flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricomodern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability 
13flag of QatarQatarmodern system centered in Doha 
14flag of RussiaRussiathe telephone system has undergone significant changes in the 1990s; there are more than 1000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy 
15flag of RwandaRwandatelephone system primarily serves business and government 
16flag of RéunionRéunionadequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis 
17flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islandsparty line telephone service on the island 
18flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antillesgenerally adequate facilities 
19flag of New ZealandNew Zealandexcellent international and domestic systems 
20flag of NepalNepalpoor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network 
21flag of NauruNauruadequate local and international radiotelephone communications provided via Australian facilities 
22flag of MozambiqueMozambiquefair system of tropospheric scatter open-wire lines and microwave radio relay 
23flag of MonacoMonacoautomatic telephone system 
24flag of MoldovaMoldovainadequate outmoded poor service outside Chisinau some effort to modernize is under way 
25flag of MexicoMexicohighly developed system with extensive microwave radio relay links; privatized in December 1990; opened to competition January 1997 
26flag of MayotteMayottesmall system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications 
27flag of MauritaniaMauritaniapoor system of cable and open-wire lines minor microwave radio relay links and radiotelephone communications stations 
28flag of MartiniqueMartiniquedomestic facilities are adequate 
29flag of MaltaMaltaautomatic system satisfies normal requirements 
30flag of MaliMalidomestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service 
31flag of MalaysiaMalaysiainternational service good 
32flag of LuxembourgLuxembourghighly developed completely automated and efficient system mainly buried cables 
33flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevisgood interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone connections and international link via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin 
34flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabiamodern system 
35flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leonemarginal telephone and telegraph service 
36flag of TurkeyTurkeyundergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially cellular telephones 
37flag of ZambiaZambiafacilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa 
38flag of YemenYemensince unification in 1990 efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network 
39flag of Wake IslandWake Islandsatellite communications; 1 DSN circuit off the Overseas Telephone System 
40flag of VietnamVietnamwhile Vietnam's telecommunication sector lags far behind other countries in Southeast Asia Hanoi has made considerable progress since 1991 in upgrading the system; Vietnam has digitalized all provincial switch boards while fiber-optic and microwave transmission systems have been extended from Hanoi Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh City to all provinces; the density of telephone receivers nationwide doubled from 1993 to 1995 but is still far behind other countries in the region 
41flag of VenezuelaVenezuelamodern and expanding 
42flag of UzbekistanUzbekistanantiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization 
43flag of UruguayUruguaysome modern facilities 
44flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdomtechnologically advanced domestic and international system 
45flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emiratesmodern system consisting of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai 
46flag of UkraineUkraineUkraine's telecommunication development plan running through 2005 emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines and international connections and developing a mobile cellular system 
47flag of UgandaUgandaseriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available 
48flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islandsfair cable and radiotelephone services 
49flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanpoorly developed 
50flag of TunisiaTunisiaabove the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax Sousse Bizerte and Tunis; Internet access available 
51flag of SingaporeSingaporegood domestic facilities; good international service 
52flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobagoexcellent international service; good local service 
53flag of TogoTogofair system based on network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and cellular system 
54flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlandshighly developed and well maintained 
55flag of ThailandThailandservice to general public adequate but investment in technological upgrades reduced by recession; bulk of service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay network 
56flag of TajikistanTajikistanpoorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network 
57flag of SyriaSyriafair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades including fiber-optic technology 
58flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerlandexcellent domestic and international services 
59flag of SwedenSwedenexcellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system 
60flag of SurinameSurinameinternational facilities good 
61flag of Sri LankaSri Lankavery inadequate domestic service particularly in rural areas; some hope for improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service 
62flag of SpainSpaingenerally adequate modern facilities 
63flag of South KoreaSouth Koreaexcellent domestic and international services 
64flag of South AfricaSouth Africathe system is the best developed and most modern in Africa 
65flag of SomaliaSomaliathe public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems 
66flag of LithuaniaLithuaniainadequate but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access 
67flag of LibyaLibyatelecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996 
68flag of LiechtensteinLiechtensteinautomatic telephone system 
69flag of BurundiBurundiprimitive system 
70flag of DjiboutiDjiboutitelephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country 
71flag of DenmarkDenmarkexcellent telephone and telegraph services 
72flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoirewell-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity 
73flag of CyprusCyprusexcellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas 
74flag of Costa RicaCosta Ricavery good domestic telephone service 
75flag of CongoCongoservices barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville Pointe-Noire and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out-of-order 
76flag of ComorosComorossparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations 
77flag of ChinaChinadomestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities industrial centers and many towns 
78flag of ChileChilemodern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities 
79flag of ChadChadprimitive system 
80flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republicfair system 
81flag of CanadaCanadaexcellent service provided by modern technology 
82flag of CameroonCameroonavailable only to business and government 
83flag of BulgariaBulgariamore than two-thirds of the lines are residential 
84flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineapoor system with adequate government services 
85flag of BruneiBruneiservice throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe US and East Asia 
86flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islandsworldwide telephone service 
87flag of British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean Territoryseparate facilities for military and public needs are available 
88flag of BrazilBrazilgood working system 
89flag of BotswanaBotswanasparse system 
90flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovinatelephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics 
91flag of BoliviaBolivianew subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities 
92flag of BelizeBelizeabove-average system 
93flag of BelgiumBelgiumhighly developed technologically advanced and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities 
94flag of BelarusBelarusthe Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier 
95flag of BahrainBahrainmodern system; good domestic services and excellent international connections 
96flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanAzerbaijan's telephone system is a combination of old Soviet era technology used by Azerbaijani citizens and small- to medium-size commercial establishments and modern cellular telephones used by an increasing middle class large commercial ventures international companies and most government officials; the average citizen waits on a 200000-person list for telephone service; Internet and e-mail service are available in Baku 
97flag of AustraliaAustraliaexcellent domestic and international service 
98flag of ArmeniaArmeniasystem inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion 
99flag of EgyptEgyptlarge system by Third World standards but inadequate for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; Internet access available 
100flag of EstoniaEstoniaforeign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services available throughout most of the country; about 150000 unfilled subscriber requests 
101flag of LiberiaLiberiatelephone and telegraph service via microwave radio relay network; main center is Monrovia 
102flag of HungaryHungarythe telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service 
103flag of LebanonLebanontelecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway 
104flag of LaosLaosservice to general public is poor but improving with over 20000 telephones currently in service and an additional 48000 expected by 2001; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areas 
105flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanpoorly developed; about 100000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones 
106flag of KuwaitKuwaitthe civil network suffered some damage as a result of the Gulf war but most of the telephone exchanges were left intact and by the end of 1994 domestic and international telecommunications had been restored to normal operation; the quality of service is excellent 
107flag of KenyaKenyaunreliable; little attempt to modernize 
108flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanservice is poor; equipment antiquated 
109flag of JordanJordanservice has improved recently with the increased use of digital switching equipment but better access to the telephone system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to pay telephones is needed by the urban public 
110flag of JamaicaJamaicafully automatic domestic telephone network 
111flag of ItalyItalymodern well-developed fast; fully automated telephone telex and data services 
112flag of IraqIraqreconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been rebuilt 
113flag of IranIraninadequate but currently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages not presently connected 
114flag of IndonesiaIndonesiadomestic service fair international service good 
115flag of IcelandIcelandadequate domestic service 
116flag of Hong KongHong Kongmodern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services 
117flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe Islandsgood international communications; good domestic facilities 
118flag of HondurasHondurasinadequate system 
119flag of Holy SeeHoly Seeautomatic exchange 
120flag of GuyanaGuyanafair system for long-distance calling 
121flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissausmall system 
122flag of GuatemalaGuatemalafairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala 
123flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupedomestic facilities inadequate 
124flag of GrenadaGrenadaautomatic islandwide telephone system 
125flag of GreeceGreeceadequate modern networks reach all areas; microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire network; submarine cables to off-shore islands 
126flag of GibraltarGibraltaradequate automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities 
127flag of GhanaGhanapoor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway 
128flag of GermanyGermanyGermany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part 
129flag of FranceFrancehighly developed 
130flag of FinlandFinlandmodern system with excellent service 
131flag of FijiFijimodern local interisland and international 
132flag of ZimbabweZimbabwesystem was once one of the best in Africa but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines 

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