Country ranking for field: environment current issues 1990

Other rankings:  

This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

The WorldWorldlarge areas subject to severe weather
1flag of MaldivesMaldives1200 
2flag of CanadaCanada80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development 
3flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands30 islands 
4flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlands27% of the land area is below sea level and protected from the North Sea by dikes 
5flag of AfghanistanAfghanistandamaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation desertification overgrazing deforestation pollution 
6flag of PakistanPakistanfrequent earthquakes occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains 
7flag of NigerNigerrecurrent drought and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion 
8flag of NigeriaNigeriarecent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; desertification; soil degradation rapid deforestation 
9flag of NiueNiuesubject to typhoons 
10flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk Islandsubject to typhoons 
11flag of North KoreaNorth Koreamountainous interior is isolated nearly inaccessible and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding 
12flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsMt. Pagan is an active volcano 
13flag of NorwayNorwayair and water pollution; acid rain 
14flag of OmanOmansummer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms in interior; sparse natural freshwater resources 
15flag of Pacific OceanPacific Oceanendangered marine species include the dugong sea lion sea otter seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical cyclones 
16flag of PanamaPanamadense tropical forest in east and northwest 
17flag of Palmyra AtollPalmyra Atollabout 50 islets covered with dense vegetation coconut trees and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall 
18flag of New ZealandNew Zealandearthquakes are common though usually not severe 
19flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guineaone of world's largest swamps along southwest coast; some active volcanos; frequent earthquakes 
20flag of Paracel IslandsParacel Islandssubject to typhoons 
21flag of ParaguayParaguaylocal flooding in southeast 
22flag of PeruPerusubject to earthquakes tsunamis landslides mild volcanic activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima 
23flag of PhilippinesPhilippinesastride typhoon belt usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides active volcanoes destructive earthquakes tsunami; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
24flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islandssubject to typhoons 
25flag of PolandPolandplain crossed by a few north-flowing meandering streams; severe air and water pollution in south 
26flag of PortugalPortugalAzores subject to severe earthquakes 
27flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricomany small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north 
28flag of QatarQatarhaze duststorms sandstorms common; limited freshwater resources mean increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities 
29flag of RomaniaRomaniafrequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides air pollution in south 
30flag of RwandaRwandadeforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; periodic droughts 
31flag of NicaraguaNicaraguasubject to destructive earthquakes volcanoes landslides and occasional severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
32flag of NepalNepalcontains eight of world's 10 highest peaks; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
33flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledoniatyphoons most frequent from November to March 
34flag of MauritiusMauritiussubject to cyclones 
35flag of LibyaLibyahot dry dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources 
36flag of LiechtensteinLiechtensteinvariety of microclimatic variations based on elevation 
37flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgdeforestation 
38flag of MacauMacauessentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland 
39flag of MadagascarMadagascarsubject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
40flag of MalawiMalawideforestation 
41flag of MalaysiaMalaysiasubject to flooding; air and water pollution 
42flag of MaliMalihot dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; desertification 
43flag of MaltaMaltanumerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very scarce--increasing reliance on desalination 
44flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islandsoccasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1152 islands 
45flag of MartiniqueMartiniquesubject to hurricanes flooding and volcanic activity that result in an average of one major natural disaster every five years 
46flag of MauritaniaMauritaniahot dry dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal 
47flag of MayotteMayottesubject to cyclones during rainy season 
48flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands AntillesCuracao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt so rarely threatened; Sint Maarten Saba and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes from July to October 
49flag of MexicoMexicosubject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted in north inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border 
50flag of Midway IslandsMidway Islandscoral atoll 
51flag of MonacoMonacoalmost entirely urban 
52flag of MongoliaMongoliaharsh and rugged 
53flag of MontserratMontserratsubject to severe hurricanes from June to November 
54flag of MoroccoMorocconorthern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; desertification 
55flag of MozambiqueMozambiquesevere drought and floods occur in south; desertification 
56flag of MyanmarMyanmarsubject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season 
57flag of NamibiaNamibiainhospitable with very limited natural water resources; desertification 
58flag of NauruNauruonly 53 km south of Equator 
59flag of Navassa IslandNavassa Islandmostly exposed rock but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees scattered cactus 
60flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helenavery few perennial streams 
61flag of RéunionRéunionperiodic devastating cyclones 
62flag of Saint LuciaSaint Luciasubject to hurricanes and volcanic activity; deforestation; soil erosion 
63flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevissubject to hurricanes 
64flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdompollution control measures improving air water quality; because of heavily indented coastline no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters 
65flag of TogoTogohot dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation 
66flag of TokelauTokelaulies in Pacific typhoon belt 
67flag of TongaTongaarchipelago of 170 islands 
68flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobagooutside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms 
69flag of Tromelin IslandTromelin Islandwildlife sanctuary 
70flag of TunisiaTunisiadeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
71flag of TurkeyTurkeysubject to severe earthquakes especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification 
72flag of TuvaluTuvalusevere tropical storms are rare 
73flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin Islandsrarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts floods earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources 
74flag of UgandaUgandastraddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion 
75flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emiratesfrequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification 
76flag of United StatesUnited Statespollution control measures improving air and water quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis volcanoes and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development 
77flag of The BahamasThe Bahamassubject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood damage 
78flag of UruguayUruguaysubject to seasonally high winds droughts floods 
79flag of VanuatuVanuatusubject to tropical cyclones or typhoons 
80flag of VenezuelaVenezuelasubject to floods rockslides mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo 
81flag of VietnamVietnamoccasional typhoons 
82flag of Wake IslandWake Islandsubject to occasional typhoons 
83flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futunaboth island groups have fringing reefs 
84flag of West BankWest Bankhighlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers 
85flag of Western SaharaWestern Saharahot dry dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time often severely restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land: geoad2 
86flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoasubject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism 
87flag of YugoslaviaYugoslaviasubject to frequent and destructive earthquakes 
88flag of ZaireZairedense tropical rainforest in central river basin and eastern highlands; periodic droughts in south 
89flag of ZambiaZambiadeforestation; soil erosion; desertification 
90flag of The GambiaThe Gambiadeforestation 
91flag of ThailandThailandair and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area 
92flag of LesothoLesothopopulation pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing severe soil erosion soil exhaustion; desertification 
93flag of South KoreaSouth Koreaoccasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes in southwest; air pollution in large cities 
94flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadinessubject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat 
95flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelonvegetation scanty 
96flag of San MarinoSan Marinodominated by the Appenines 
97flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabiano perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing extensive coastal seawater desalination facilities; desertification 
98flag of SenegalSenegallowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
99flag of SeychellesSeychelleslies outside the cyclone belt so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible; no fresh water catchements collect rain; 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands 
100flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leoneextensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea; deforestation; soil degradation 
101flag of SingaporeSingaporemostly urban and industrialized 
102flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islandssubject to typhoons which are rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earth tremors 
103flag of SomaliaSomaliarecurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
104flag of South AfricaSouth Africalack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures 
105flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsreindeer introduced early in this century live on South Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to approach the South Sandwich Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism 
106flag of Soviet UnionSoviet Uniondespite size and diversity small percentage of land is arable and much is too far north; some of most fertile land is water deficient or has insufficient growing season; many better climates have poor soils; hot dry desiccating sukhovey wind affects south; desertification; continuous permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development 
107flag of TanzaniaTanzanialack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa 
108flag of SpainSpaindeforestation; air pollution 
109flag of Spratly IslandsSpratly Islandssubject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands atolls shoals and coral reefs 
110flag of Sri LankaSri Lankaoccasional cyclones tornados; deforestation; soil erosion 
111flag of SudanSudandominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms; desertification 
112flag of SurinameSurinamemostly tropical rain forest 
113flag of SvalbardSvalbardgreat calving glaciers descend to the sea 
114flag of SwazilandSwazilandovergrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion 
115flag of SwedenSwedenwater pollution; acid rain 
116flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerlanddominated by Alps 
117flag of SyriaSyriadeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
118flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipedeforestation; soil erosion 
119flag of TaiwanTaiwansubject to earthquakes and typhoons 
120flag of LiberiaLiberiaWest Africa's largest tropical rain forest subject to deforestation 
121flag of LaosLaosdeforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods 
122flag of LebanonLebanonrugged terrain historically helped isolate protect and develop numerous factional groups based on religion clan ethnicity; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification 
123flag of Christmas IslandChristmas Islandalmost completely surrounded by a reef 
124flag of BruneiBruneityphoons earthquakes and severe flooding are rare 
125flag of BulgariaBulgariasubject to earthquakes landslides; deforestation; air pollution 
126flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Fasorecent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural activities population distribution economy; overgrazing; deforestation 
127flag of BurundiBurundisoil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation 
128flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verdesubject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing 
129flag of CambodiaCambodiaa land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap 
130flag of CameroonCameroonrecent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification 
131flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islandswithin the Caribbean hurricane belt 
132flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republichot dry dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification 
133flag of ChadChadhot dry dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts 
134flag of ChileChilesubject to severe earthquakes active volcanism tsunami; Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertification 
135flag of ChinaChinafrequent typhoons 
136flag of Clipperton IslandClipperton Islandreef about 8 km in circumference 
137flag of British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean Territoryarchipelago of 2300 islands 
138flag of Cocos IslandsCocos Islandstwo coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation 
139flag of ColombiaColombiahighlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts 
140flag of ComorosComorossoil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy season 
141flag of CongoCongodeforestation; about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville Pointe Noire or along the railroad between them 
142flag of Cook IslandsCook Islandssubject to typhoons from November to March 
143flag of Coral Sea IslandsCoral Sea Islandssubject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles 
144flag of Costa RicaCosta Ricasubject to occasional earthquakes hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosion 
145flag of CubaCubaaverages one hurricane every other year 
146flag of CyprusCyprusmoderate earthquake activity; water resource problems 
147flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoirecoast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe deforestation 
148flag of DenmarkDenmarkair and water pollution 
149flag of DjiboutiDjiboutivast wasteland 
150flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islandssubject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to October 
151flag of BrazilBrazilrecurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo 
152flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republicsubject to occasional hurricanes 
153flag of AustraliaAustraliasubject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular tropical invigorating sea breeze known as the doctor occurs along west coast in summer; desertification 
154flag of AlgeriaAlgeriamountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification 
155flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoatyphoons common from December to March 
156flag of AndorraAndorradeforestation overgrazing 
157flag of AngolaAngolalocally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification 
158flag of AnguillaAnguillafrequent hurricanes other tropical storms 
159flag of AntarcticaAntarcticamostly uninhabitable; katabatic 
160flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbudasubject to hurricanes and tropical storms 
161flag of Arctic OceanArctic Oceanendangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage 
162flag of ArgentinaArgentinaTucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires 
163flag of ArubaArubalies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt 
164flag of Ashmore and Cartier IslandsAshmore and Cartier Islandssurrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983 
165flag of Atlantic OceanAtlantic Oceanendangered marine species include the manatee seals sea lions turtles and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US southern Brazil and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea Gulf of Mexico Lake Maracaibo Mediterranean Sea and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea North Sea and Mediterranean Sea; icebergs common in Davis Strait Denmark Strait and the northwestern Atlantic from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic 
166flag of AustriaAustriabecause of steep slopes poor soils and cold temperatures population is concentrated on eastern lowlands 
167flag of Bouvet IslandBouvet Islandcovered by glacial ice 
168flag of BahrainBahrainsubsurface water sources being rapidly depleted 
169flag of Baker IslandBaker Islandtreeless sparse and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses prostrate vines and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife 
170flag of BangladeshBangladeshvulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation 
171flag of BarbadosBarbadossubject to hurricanes 
172flag of Bassas da IndiaBassas da Indiasurrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones 
173flag of BelgiumBelgiumair and water pollution 
174flag of BelizeBelizefrequent devastating hurricanes 
175flag of BeninBeninhot dry dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation; desertification 
176flag of BermudaBermudaample rainfall but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360 small coral islands 
177flag of BhutanBhutanviolent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon 
178flag of BoliviaBoliviacold thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
179flag of BotswanaBotswanarains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing; desertification 
180flag of DominicaDominicaflash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes 
181flag of EcuadorEcuadorsubject to frequent earthquakes landslides volcanic activity; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts 
182flag of AlbaniaAlbaniasubject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast; deforestation seems to be slowing 
183flag of IsraelIsraelsandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited arable land: and natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation; 
184flag of HondurasHondurassubject to frequent but generally mild earthquakes; damaging hurricanes along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion 
185flag of Hong KongHong Kongmore than 200 islands; occasional typhoons geoad2 
186flag of Howland IslandHowland Islandalmost totally covered with grasses prostrate vines and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife; feral cats 
187flag of HungaryHungarylevees are common along many streams but flooding occurs almost every year 
188flag of IcelandIcelandsubject to earthquakes and volcanic activity 
189flag of IndiaIndiadroughts flash floods severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification 
190flag of Indian OceanIndian Oceanendangered marine species include the dugong seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea Persian Gulf and Red Sea 
191flag of IndonesiaIndonesiaarchipelago of 13500 islands 
192flag of IranIrandeforestation; overgrazing; desertification 
193flag of IraqIraqdevelopment of Tigris-Euphrates river systems contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians 
194flag of IrelandIrelanddeforestation 
195flag of Isle of ManIsle of Manstrong westerly winds prevail 
196flag of ItalyItalyregional risks include landslides mudflows snowslides earthquakes volcanic eruptions flooding pollution; land sinkage in Venice 
197flag of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald Islandsprimarily used as research stations 
198flag of JamaicaJamaicasubject to hurricanes 
199flag of Jan MayenJan Mayenbarren volcanic island with some moss and grass; volcanic activity resumed in 1970 
200flag of JapanJapanmany dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1500 seismic occurrences 
201flag of Jarvis IslandJarvis Islandsparse bunch grass prostrate vines and low-growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife; feral cats 
202flag of JerseyJerseyabout 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier 
203flag of Johnston AtollJohnston Atollsome low-growing vegetation 
204flag of JordanJordanlack of natural water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
205flag of Juan de Nova IslandJuan de Nova Islandsubject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary 
206flag of KenyaKenyaunique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; glaciers on Mt. Kenya 
207flag of Kingman ReefKingman Reefbarren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or awash most of the time 
208flag of KiribatiKiribatityphoons can occur any time but usually November to March; 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited 
209flag of KuwaitKuwaitsome of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide most of water; air and water pollution; desertification 
210flag of Holy SeeHoly Seeurban 
211flag of HaitiHaitilies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; deforestation 
212flag of EgyptEgyptNile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; hot driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; water pollution; desertification 
213flag of French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench Southern and Antarctic LandsIle Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes 
214flag of El SalvadorEl SalvadorThe Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
215flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineasubject to violent windstorms 
216flag of EthiopiaEthiopiageologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine 
217flag of Europa IslandEuropa Islandwildlife sanctuary 
218flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islandspoor soil fertility and a short growing season 
219flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe Islandsprecipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands; archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets 
220flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesiasubject to typhoons from June to December; four major island groups totaling 607 islands 
221flag of FijiFijisubject to hurricanes from November to January; includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited 
222flag of FinlandFinlandpermanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain 
223flag of FranceFrancemost of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone Garonne Seine or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral 
224flag of French GuianaFrench Guianamostly an unsettled wilderness 
225flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesiaoccasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes 
226flag of GabonGabondeforestation geoad2 
227flag of GuyanaGuyanaflash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons; water pollution 
228flag of Gaza StripGaza Stripdesertification 
229flag of GhanaGhanarecent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry northeasterly harmattan wind 
230flag of GibraltarGibraltarnatural freshwater sources are meager so large water catchments 
231flag of Glorioso IslandsGlorioso Islandssubject to periodic cyclones 
232flag of GreeceGreecesubject to severe earthquakes; air pollution; archipelago of 2000 islands 
233flag of GreenlandGreenlandsparse population confined to small settlements along coast; continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island 
234flag of GrenadaGrenadalies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November 
235flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupesubject to hurricanes 
236flag of GuamGuamfrequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare but potentially very destructive typhoons 
237flag of GuatemalaGuatemalanumerous volcanoes in mountains with frequent violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
238flag of GuernseyGuernseylarge deepwater harbor at St. Peter Port 
239flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissauhot dry dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season 
240flag of GuineaGuineahot dry dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; deforestation 
241flag of ZimbabweZimbabwerecurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification 

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