Country ranking for field: constitution 1993

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This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” The amendments subfield summarizes the process of amending a country’s constitution – from proposal through passage – and the dates of amendments, which are treated in the same manner as the constitution dates. Where appropriate, summaries are composed from English-language translations of non-English constitutions, which derive from official or non-official translations or machine translators.|The main steps in creating a constitution and amending it usually include the following steps: proposal, drafting, legislative and/or executive branch review and approval, public referendum, and entry into law. In many countries this process is lengthy. Terms commonly used to describe constitutional changes are “amended,” “revised,” or “reformed.” In countries such as South Korea and Turkmenistan, sources differ as to whether changes are stated as new constitutions or are amendments/revisions to existing ones.|A few countries including Canada, Israel, and the UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed. Some special regions (Hong Kong, Macau) and countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia) use the term “basic law” instead of constitution.|A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar (UK), Greenland and Faroe Islands (Denmark), Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten (Netherlands), and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US) have their own constitutions.

1flag of TogoTogo1980 
2flag of Isle of ManIsle of Man1961 Isle of Man Constitution Act 
3flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islands1959 revised 1972 
4flag of AustriaAustria1920; revised 1929 
5flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago31 August 1976 
6flag of GuatemalaGuatemala31 May 1985 effective 14 January 1986 
7flag of Sri LankaSri Lanka31 August 1978 
8flag of MalaysiaMalaysia31 August 1957 amended 16 September 1963 
9flag of VanuatuVanuatu30 July 1980 
10flag of MozambiqueMozambique30 November 1990 
11flag of BarbadosBarbados30 November 1966 
12flag of GibraltarGibraltar30 May 1969 
13flag of IrelandIreland29 December 1937; adopted 1937 
14flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerland29 May 1874 
15flag of NauruNauru29 January 1968 
16flag of BruneiBrunei29 September 1959 
17flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antilles29 December 1954 Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands as amended 
18flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupe28 September 1958 
19flag of RéunionRéunion28 September 1958 
20flag of FranceFrance28 September 1958 amended concerning election of president in 1962 ammended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992 
21flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republic28 November 1966 
22flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelon28 September 1958 
23flag of French GuianaFrench Guiana28 September 1958 
24flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia28 September 1958 
25flag of MartiniqueMartinique28 September 1958 
26flag of PeruPeru28 July 1980 
27flag of MayotteMayotte28 September 1958 
28flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna28 September 1958 
29flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledonia28 September 1958 
30flag of UruguayUruguay27 November 1966 effective February 1967 suspended 27 June 1973 new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980 
31flag of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and Montenegro27 April 1992 
32flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines27 October 1979 
33flag of October 1991 government claims to be observing the ConstitutionOctober 1991 government claims to be observing the Constitution27 August 1983 suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March 1987 suspended June 1988 most articles reinstated March 1989; 
34flag of BahrainBahrain26 May 1973 effective 6 December 1973 
35flag of MaltaMalta26 April 1974 effective 2 June 1974 
36flag of IndiaIndia26 January 1950 
37flag of LebanonLebanon26 May 1926 
38flag of SomaliaSomalia25 August 1979 presidential approval 23 September 1979 
39flag of TaiwanTaiwan25 December 1947 presently undergoing revision 
40flag of PortugalPortugal25 April 1976 revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989 
41flag of South KoreaSouth Korea25 February 1988 
42flag of The GambiaThe Gambia24 April 1970 
43flag of CubaCuba24 February 1976 
44flag of ZaireZaire24 June 1967 amended August 1974 revised 15 February 1978; amended April 1990; new constitution to be put to referendum in 1993 
45flag of VenezuelaVenezuela23 January 1961 
46flag of GermanyGermany23 May 1949 provisional constitution known as Basic Law 
47flag of GuineaGuinea23 December 1990 
48flag of National Charter 1 March 1991; national conference drafting new constitution to submit to referendum January 1993National Charter 1 March 1991; national conference drafting new constitution to submit to referendum January 199322 December 1989 suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional 
49flag of ThailandThailand22 December 1978; new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992 
50flag of IraqIraq22 September 1968 effective 16 July 1970 
51flag of Saint LuciaSaint Lucia22 February 1979 
52flag of GabonGabon21 February 1961 revised 15 April 1975 
53flag of ZimbabweZimbabwe21 December 1979 
54flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republic21 November 1986 
55flag of BelizeBelize21 September 1981 
56flag of CameroonCameroon20 May 1972 
57flag of El SalvadorEl Salvador20 December 1983 
58flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis19 September 1983 
59flag of NiueNiue19 October 1974 
60flag of February 1989February 198919 November 1976 effective 22 November 1976; revised 
61flag of RwandaRwanda18 June 1991 
62flag of HungaryHungary18 August 1949 effective 20 August 1949 revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight 
63flag of FinlandFinland17 July 1919 
64flag of MonacoMonaco17 December 1962 
65flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlands17 February 1983 
66flag of LuxembourgLuxembourg17 October 1868 occasional revisions 
67flag of MacauMacau17 February 1976 Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by Beijing awaiting final approval 
68flag of NorwayNorway17 May 1814 modified in 1884 
69flag of United StatesUnited States17 September 1787 effective 4 June 1789 
70flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau16 May 1984 
71flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea16 September 1975 
72flag of YemenYemen16 April 1991 
73flag of KuwaitKuwait16 November 1962 
74flag of IcelandIceland16 June 1944 effective 17 June 1944 
75flag of Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 TurkishGreek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between 
76flag of TanzaniaTanzania15 March 1984 
77flag of SyriaSyria13 March 1973 
78flag of BurundiBurundi13 March 1992 draft provides for establishment of plural political system 
79flag of SudanSudan12 April 1973 suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989 
80flag of KiribatiKiribati12 July 1979 
81flag of KenyaKenya12 December 1963 amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 1983 1986 1988 1991 and 1992 
82flag of MauritiusMauritius12 March 1968 
83flag of MauritaniaMauritania12 July 1991 
84flag of PanamaPanama11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983 
85flag of HondurasHonduras11 January 1982 effective 20 January 1982 
86flag of AngolaAngola11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978 11 August 1980 and 6 March 1991 
87flag of GreeceGreece11 June 1975 
88flag of ChileChile11 September 1980 effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989 subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 
89flag of EgyptEgypt11 September 1971 
90flag of The BahamasThe Bahamas10 July 1973 
91flag of MoroccoMorocco10 March 1972 revised in September 1992 
92flag of FijiFiji10 October 1970 
93flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesia10 May 1979 
94flag of PakistanPakistan10 April 1973 suspended 5 July 1977 restored with amendments 30 December 1985 
95flag of EcuadorEcuador10 August 1979 
96flag of Costa RicaCosta Rica9 November 1949 
97flag of AustraliaAustralia9 July 1900 effective 1 January 1901 
98flag of NepalNepal9 November 1990 
99flag of UgandaUganda8 September 1967 in process of constitutional revision 
100flag of JordanJordan8 January 1952 
101flag of San MarinoSan Marino8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution 
102flag of BermudaBermuda8 June 1968 
103flag of RomaniaRomania8 December 1991 
104flag of CongoCongo8 July 1979 currently being modified 
105flag of ComorosComoros7 June 1992 
106flag of BelgiumBelgium7 February 1831 last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the Belgian state 
107flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands7 July 1978 
108flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verde7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981 December 1988 and 28 September 1990 
109flag of TurkeyTurkey7 November 1982 
110flag of JamaicaJamaica6 August 1962 
111flag of GuyanaGuyana6 October 1980 
112flag of SpainSpain6 December 1978 effective 29 December 1978 
113flag of MalawiMalawi6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974 
114flag of LiberiaLiberia6 January 1986 
115flag of Spratly IslandsSpratly Islands6 December 1978 effective 29 December 1978 
116flag of SeychellesSeychelles5 June 1979 
117flag of MexicoMexico5 February 1917 
118flag of ColombiaColombia5 July 1991 
119flag of LiechtensteinLiechtenstein5 October 1921 
120flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe5 November 1975 approved 15 December 1982 
121flag of BrazilBrazil5 October 1988 
122flag of DenmarkDenmark5 June 1953 
123flag of TongaTonga4 November 1875 revised 1 January 1967 
124flag of LesothoLesotho4 October 1966 suspended January 1970 
125flag of BangladeshBangladesh4 November 1972 effective 16 December 1972 suspended following coup of 24 March 1982 restored 10 November 1986 amended NA March 1991 
126flag of MaldivesMaldives4 June 1964 
127flag of Cook IslandsCook Islands4 August 1965 
128flag of Singapore ConstitutionSingapore Constitution3 June 1959 amended 1965; based on preindependence State of 
129flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands3 October 1985 
130flag of South AfricaSouth Africa3 September 1984 
131flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands3 October 1985 
132flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire3 November 1960 
133flag of SenegalSenegal3 March 1963 last revised in 1991 
134flag of DominicaDominica3 November 1978 
135flag of MyanmarMyanmar3 January 1974 
136flag of JapanJapan3 May 1947 
137flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates2 December 1971 
138flag of IranIran2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership 
139flag of PhilippinesPhilippines2 February 1987 effective 11 February 1987 
140flag of BoliviaBolivia2 February 1967 
141flag of BeninBenin2 December 1990 
142flag of TunisiaTunisia1 June 1959 
143flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands1 June 1977 
144flag of TuvaluTuvalu1 October 1978 
145flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands1 May 1979 
146flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leone1 October 1991; amended September 1991 
147flag of NigeriaNigeria1 October 1979 amended 9 February 1984 revised 1989 
148flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoa1 January 1962 
149flag of AnguillaAnguilla1 April 1982 
150flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda1 November 1981 
151flag of ArgentinaArgentina1 May 1853 
152flag of ArubaAruba1 January 1986 
153flag of ItalyItaly1 January 1948 
154flag of SwedenSweden1 January 1975 
155flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helena1 January 1989 
156flag of April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but has not been formally presented to the peopleApril 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but has not been formally presented to the peoplenone; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 
157flag of SurinameSurinameratified 30 September 1987 
158flag of ChinaChinamost recent promulgated 4 December 1982 
159flag of CanadaCanadaamended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs 
160flag of CambodiaCambodiaa new constitution will be drafted after the national election in 1993 
161flag of Burkina FasoBurkina FasoJune 1991 
162flag of Christmas IslandChristmas IslandChristmas Island Act of 1958 
163flag of TajikistanTajikistanas of mid-1993 a new constitution had not been formally approved 
164flag of BelarusBelarusadopted NA April 1978 
165flag of BulgariaBulgariaadopted 12 July 1991 
166flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdomunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
167flag of ZambiaZambiaNA August 1991 
168flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoaratified 1966 in effect 1967 
169flag of AndorraAndorraAndorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993; to take effect within 15 days 
170flag of VietnamVietnamNA April 1992 
171flag of UzbekistanUzbekistannew constitution adopted 8 December 1992 
172flag of ArmeniaArmeniaadopted NA April 1978; post-Soviet constitution not yet adopted 
173flag of UkraineUkraineusing 1978 pre-independence constitution; new consitution currently being drafted 
174flag of BotswanaBotswanaMarch 1965 effective 30 September 1966 
175flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanadopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution mid-1993 
176flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin IslandsRevised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 
177flag of Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contentsConstitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contentsintroduced 30 August 1976 suspended in 1986 and a 
178flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanadopted 18 May 1992 
179flag of TokelauTokelauadministered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 as amended in 1970 
180flag of BhutanBhutanno written constitution or bill of rights compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 
181flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaNA 
182flag of Cocos IslandsCocos IslandsCocos 
183flag of SlovakiaSlovakiaratified 3 September 1992; fully effective 1 January 1993 
184flag of CroatiaCroatiaadopted on 2 December 1991 
185flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanadopted 18 January 1993 
186flag of North KoreaNorth Koreaadopted 1948 completely revised 27 December 1972 revised again in April 1992 
187flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk IslandNorfolk Island Act of 1957 
188flag of IsraelIsraelno formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment 
189flag of Democratic Reform ConferenceDemocratic Reform ConferenceDecember 1989 constitution revised November 1991 by National 
190flag of NicaraguaNicaraguaJanuary 1987 
191flag of Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987 but has not been enactedConstitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987 but has not been enactedno formal written constitution; consists of various documents including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; 
192flag of JerseyJerseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
193flag of NamibiaNamibiaratified 9 February 1990 
194flag of Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959August 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and 
195flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanadopted 5 May 1993 
196flag of LaosLaospromulgated August 1991 
197flag of MongoliaMongoliaadopted 13 January 1992 
198flag of LatviaLatviaadopted NA May 1922 considering rewriting constitution 
199flag of MoldovaMoldovaas of mid-1993 the new constitution had not been adopted; old constitution 
200flag of AlbaniaAlbaniaan interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992 but is still in process 
201flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaadopted 25 October 1992 
202flag of MacedoniaMacedoniaadopted 17 November 1991 effective 20 November 1991 
203flag of OmanOmannone 
204flag of Hong KongHong Kongunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997 
205flag of Czech RepublicCzech Republicratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993 
206flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe IslandsDanish 
207flag of DjiboutiDjiboutimultiparty constitution approved in referendum September 1992 
208flag of SloveniaSloveniaadopted 23 December 1991 effective 23 December 1991 
209flag of January 1992January 1992new constitution adopted in constitutional referendum in 
210flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineanew constitution 17 November 1991 
211flag of EritreaEritreatransitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993 
212flag of EstoniaEstoniaadopted 28 June 1992 
213flag of EthiopiaEthiopiato be redrafted by 1993 
214flag of Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995adopted NA 1921; currently amending constitution for 
215flag of Holy SeeHoly SeeApostolic Constitution of 1967 
216flag of GhanaGhananew constitution approved 28 April 1992 
217flag of GreenlandGreenlandDanish 
218flag of QatarQatarprovisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970 
219flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricoratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952 
220flag of GuamGuamOrganic Act of 1 August 1950 
221flag of PolandPolandinterim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992 replacing the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; new democratic Constitution being drafted 
222flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn IslandsLocal Government Ordinance of 1964 
223flag of GuernseyGuernseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
224flag of Islamic constitution has yet to be ratifiedIslamic constitution has yet to be ratifiedthe old Communist-era constitution has been suspended; a new 

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