Country ranking for field: constitution 2001

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This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” The amendments subfield summarizes the process of amending a country’s constitution – from proposal through passage – and the dates of amendments, which are treated in the same manner as the constitution dates. Where appropriate, summaries are composed from English-language translations of non-English constitutions, which derive from official or non-official translations or machine translators.|The main steps in creating a constitution and amending it usually include the following steps: proposal, drafting, legislative and/or executive branch review and approval, public referendum, and entry into law. In many countries this process is lengthy. Terms commonly used to describe constitutional changes are “amended,” “revised,” or “reformed.” In countries such as South Korea and Turkmenistan, sources differ as to whether changes are stated as new constitutions or are amendments/revisions to existing ones.|A few countries including Canada, Israel, and the UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed. Some special regions (Hong Kong, Macau) and countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia) use the term “basic law” instead of constitution.|A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar (UK), Greenland and Faroe Islands (Denmark), Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten (Netherlands), and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US) have their own constitutions.

1flag of MaltaMalta1964 
2flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islands1959 revised 1972 and 1992 
3flag of AustriaAustria1920; revised 1929 
4flag of DenmarkDenmark1849 was the original constitution; there was a major overhaul 5 June 1953 allowing for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state 
5flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islands1838; reformed 1904 with additional reforms in 1940; further refined by the Local Government Ordinance of 1964 
6flag of PeruPeru31 December 1993 
7flag of GuatemalaGuatemala31 May 1985 effective 14 January 1986; note - suspended 25 May 1993 by former President SERRANO; reinstated 5 June 1993 following ouster of president; amended November 1993 
8flag of MalaysiaMalaysia31 August 1957 amended 16 September 1963 
9flag of MozambiqueMozambique30 November 1990 
10flag of VenezuelaVenezuela30 December 1999 
11flag of BelarusBelarus30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996 
12flag of BarbadosBarbados30 November 1966 
13flag of GibraltarGibraltar30 May 1969 
14flag of VanuatuVanuatu30 July 1980 
15flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antilles29 December 1954 Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands as amended 
16flag of IrelandIreland29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite 
17flag of NauruNauru29 January 1968 
18flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerland29 May 1874 
19flag of BruneiBrunei29 September 1959 
20flag of MartiniqueMartinique28 September 1958 
21flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republic28 November 1966 
22flag of FranceFrance28 September 1958 amended concerning election of president in 1962 amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993 
23flag of French GuianaFrench Guiana28 September 1958 
24flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelon28 September 1958 
25flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia28 September 1958 
26flag of RéunionRéunion28 September 1958 
27flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupe28 September 1958 
28flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna28 September 1958 
29flag of MayotteMayotte28 September 1958 
30flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledonia28 September 1958 
31flag of UruguayUruguay27 November 1966 effective February 1967 suspended 27 June 1973 new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980; two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997 
32flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines27 October 1979 
33flag of IndiaIndia26 January 1950 
34flag of PortugalPortugal25 April 1976 revised 30 October 1982 1 June 1989 5 November 1992 and 3 September 1997 
35flag of TanzaniaTanzania25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984 
36flag of South KoreaSouth Korea25 February 1988 
37flag of CubaCuba24 February 1976 amended July 1992 
38flag of The GambiaThe Gambia24 April 1970; suspended July 1994; rewritten and approved by national referendum 8 August 1996; reestablished in January 1997 
39flag of Democratic Republic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the Congo24 June 1967 amended August 1974 revised 15 February 1978 amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994; in November 1998 a draft constitution was approved by former President Laurent KABILA but it has not been ratified by a national referendum 
40flag of GuineaGuinea23 December 1990 
41flag of El SalvadorEl Salvador23 December 1983 
42flag of GermanyGermany23 May 1949 known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990 
43flag of LebanonLebanon23 May 1926 amended a number of times most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation 
44flag of IraqIraq22 September 1968 effective 16 July 1970 
45flag of Saint LuciaSaint Lucia22 February 1979 
46flag of ZimbabweZimbabwe21 December 1979 
47flag of BelizeBelize21 September 1981 
48flag of CameroonCameroon20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted; revised January 1996 
49flag of ComorosComoros20 October 1996 
50flag of AlgeriaAlgeria19 November 1976 effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 23 February 1989 and 28 November 1996; note - referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into law 7 December 1996 
51flag of GrenadaGrenada19 December 1973 
52flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis19 September 1983 
53flag of MadagascarMadagascar19 August 1992 by national referendum 
54flag of NiueNiue19 October 1974 
55flag of MalawiMalawi18 May 1994 
56flag of SeychellesSeychelles18 June 1993 
57flag of HungaryHungary18 August 1949 effective 20 August 1949 revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system 
58flag of LuxembourgLuxembourg17 October 1868 occasional revisions 
59flag of United StatesUnited States17 September 1787 effective 4 March 1789 
60flag of NorwayNorway17 May 1814 modified in 1884 
61flag of MonacoMonaco17 December 1962 
62flag of FinlandFinland17 July 1919 
63flag of CanadaCanada17 April 1982 
64flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea16 September 1975 
65flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau16 May 1984 amended 4 May 1991 4 December 1991 26 February 1993 9 June 1993 and 1996 
66flag of IcelandIceland16 June 1944 effective 17 June 1944 
67flag of PolandPoland16 October 1997; adopted by the National Assembly 2 April 1997; passed by national referendum 23 May 1997 
68flag of YemenYemen16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001 
69flag of CyprusCyprus16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the 'Turkish Federated State of Cyprus' which was renamed the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985 
70flag of VietnamVietnam15 April 1992 
71flag of BurundiBurundi13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents 
72flag of SyriaSyria13 March 1973 
73flag of KiribatiKiribati12 July 1979 
74flag of KenyaKenya12 December 1963 amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 1983 1986 1988 1991 1992 and 1997 
75flag of MongoliaMongolia12 February 1992 
76flag of MauritaniaMauritania12 July 1991 
77flag of MauritiusMauritius12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992 
78flag of SudanSudan12 April 1973 suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR 
79flag of HondurasHonduras11 January 1982 effective 20 January 1982; amended 1995 
80flag of GreeceGreece11 June 1975; amended March 1986 
81flag of AngolaAngola11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978 11 August 1980 6 March 1991 and 26 August 1992 
82flag of EgyptEgypt11 September 1971 
83flag of ChileChile11 September 1980 effective 11 March 1981 amended 30 July 1989 1993 and 1997 
84flag of PanamaPanama11 October 1972; major reforms adopted 1978 1983 and 1994 
85flag of LibyaLibya11 December 1969 amended 2 March 1977 
86flag of South AfricaSouth Africa10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996 was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996 and entered into effect on 3 February 1997; it is being implemented in phases 
87flag of PakistanPakistan10 April 1973 suspended 5 July 1977 restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999 
88flag of EcuadorEcuador10 August 1998 
89flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesia10 May 1979 
90flag of FijiFiji10 October 1970 
91flag of MoroccoMorocco10 March 1972 revised 4 September 1992 amended 
92flag of The BahamasThe Bahamas10 July 1973 
93flag of NicaraguaNicaragua9 January 1987 with reforms in 1995 and 2000 
94flag of AustraliaAustralia9 July 1900 effective 1 January 1901 
95flag of NepalNepal9 November 1990 
96flag of San MarinoSan Marino8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution 
97flag of JordanJordan8 January 1952 
98flag of RomaniaRomania8 December 1991 
99flag of UgandaUganda8 October 1995; adopted by the interim 284-member Constituent Assembly charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved upon the promulgation of the constitution in October 1995 
100flag of BermudaBermuda8 June 1968 amended 1989 
101flag of BelgiumBelgium7 February 1831 last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state 
102flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands7 July 1978 
103flag of Costa RicaCosta Rica7 November 1949 
104flag of TurkeyTurkey7 November 1982 
105flag of LiberiaLiberia6 January 1986 
106flag of GuyanaGuyana6 October 1980 
107flag of TajikistanTajikistan6 November 1994 
108flag of SpainSpain6 December 1978 effective 29 December 1978 
109flag of JamaicaJamaica6 August 1962 
110flag of LiechtensteinLiechtenstein5 October 1921 
111flag of ColombiaColombia5 July 1991 
112flag of MexicoMexico5 February 1917 
113flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands5 June 1953 
114flag of GreenlandGreenland5 June 1953 
115flag of BrazilBrazil5 October 1988 
116flag of Cook IslandsCook Islands4 August 1965 
117flag of TongaTonga4 November 1875 revised 1 January 1967 
118flag of BangladeshBangladesh4 November 1972 effective 16 December 1972 suspended following coup of 24 March 1982 restored 10 November 1986 amended many times 
119flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998 
120flag of MyanmarMyanmar3 January 1974 
121flag of DominicaDominica3 November 1978 
122flag of SingaporeSingapore3 June 1959 amended 1965 
123flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times last time 27 July 1998 
124flag of SenegalSenegal3 March 1963 revised 1991 
125flag of JapanJapan3 May 1947 
126flag of PhilippinesPhilippines2 February 1987 effective 11 February 1987 
127flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates2 December 1971 
128flag of ZambiaZambia2 August 1991 
129flag of LesothoLesotho2 April 1993 
130flag of BoliviaBolivia2 February 1967; revised in August 1994 
131flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Faso2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted 
132flag of IranIran2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership 
133flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands1 May 1979 
134flag of ItalyItaly1 January 1948 
135flag of SamoaSamoa1 January 1962 
136flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helena1 January 1989 
137flag of SwedenSweden1 January 1975 
138flag of TaiwanTaiwan1 January 1947 amended in 1992 1994 1997 and 1999 
139flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands1 June 1977 
140flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago1 August 1976 
141flag of TunisiaTunisia1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988 
142flag of TuvaluTuvalu1 October 1978 
143flag of PalauPalau1 January 1981 
144flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leone1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times 
145flag of ArgentinaArgentina1 May 1853; revised August 1994 
146flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda1 November 1981 
147flag of ArubaAruba1 January 1986 
148flag of ChinaChinamost recent promulgation 4 December 1982 
149flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsadopted 3 October 1985 
150flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoaratified 1966 in effect 1967 
151flag of ChadChadpassed by referendum 31 March 1995 
152flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republicpassed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995 
153flag of Christmas IslandChristmas IslandChristmas Island Act of 1958 
154flag of Sri LankaSri Lankaadopted 16 August 1978 
155flag of CambodiaCambodiapromulgated 21 September 1993 
156flag of AndorraAndorraAndorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993 
157flag of SurinameSurinameratified 30 September 1987 
158flag of SwazilandSwazilandnone; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission 
159flag of AnguillaAnguillaAnguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990 
160flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verdenew constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increasing the powers of the president 
161flag of SloveniaSloveniaadopted 23 December 1991 effective 23 December 1991 
162flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipeapproved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990 
163flag of UkraineUkraineadopted 28 June 1996 
164flag of BeninBeninDecember 1990 
165flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanadopted 12 November 1995 
166flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin IslandsRevised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 
167flag of BahrainBahrainadopted late December 2000 
168flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islandsintroduced 30 August 1976; suspended in 1986; restored and revised 5 March 1988 
169flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanadopted 18 May 1992 
170flag of BhutanBhutanno written constitution or bill of rights; note - Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the National Assembly; on 7 July 1998 a Royal edict was ratified giving the National Assembly additional powers 
171flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdomunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
172flag of UzbekistanUzbekistannew constitution adopted 8 December 1992 
173flag of ArmeniaArmeniaadopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995 
174flag of TokelauTokelauadministered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 as amended in 1970 
175flag of SlovakiaSlovakiaratified 1 September 1992 fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership 
176flag of TogoTogomultiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992 
177flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlandsadopted 1814; amended many times last time 17 February 1983 
178flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovinathe Dayton Agreement signed 14 December 1995 included a new constitution now in force 
179flag of BotswanaBotswanaMarch 1965 effective 30 September 1966 
180flag of ThailandThailandnew constitution signed by King PHUMIPHON on 11 October 1997 
181flag of BulgariaBulgariaadopted 12 July 1991 
182flag of CroatiaCroatiaadopted on 22 December 1990 
183flag of Cocos IslandsCocos IslandsCocos 
184flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanadopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993 
185flag of North KoreaNorth Koreaadopted 1948 completely revised 27 December 1972 revised again in April 1992 and September 1998 
186flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk IslandNorfolk Island Act of 1979 
187flag of Isle of ManIsle of Manunwritten; note - The Isle of Man Constitution Act 1961 does not embody the Manx Constitution 
188flag of NigeriaNigeriaNA 1999 new constitution adopted 
189flag of NigerNigerthe constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999 
190flag of IsraelIsraelno formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment 
191flag of New ZealandNew Zealandconsists of a series of legal documents including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter 
192flag of JerseyJerseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
193flag of KuwaitKuwaitapproved and promulgated 11 November 1962 
194flag of OmanOmannone; note - on 6 November 1996 Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a new basic law which among other things clarifies the royal succession provides for a prime minister bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government establishes a bicameral legislature and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens 
195flag of NamibiaNamibiaratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990 
196flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanadopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature 
197flag of LaosLaospromulgated 14 August 1991 
198flag of LatviaLatviathe 1991 Constitutional Law which supplements the 1922 constitution provides for basic rights and freedoms 
199flag of AlbaniaAlbaniaa new constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote 
200flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaadopted 25 October 1992 
201flag of MoldovaMoldovanew constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979 
202flag of MacauMacauBasic Law approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress is Macau's 'mini-constitution' 
203flag of MaldivesMaldivesadopted January 1998 
204flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsCovenant Agreement effective 4 November 1986 and the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands effective 1 January 1978 
205flag of IndonesiaIndonesiaAugust 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959 
206flag of CongoCongoDraft constitution approved by transitional parliament in September 2000 
207flag of RussiaRussiaadopted 12 December 1993 
208flag of MaliMaliadopted 12 January 1992 
209flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabiagoverned according to Shari'a 
210flag of Czech RepublicCzech Republicratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993 
211flag of DjiboutiDjiboutimultiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September 1992 
212flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineaapproved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995 
213flag of EritreaEritreathe transitional constitution decreed on 19 May 1993 was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997 but not yet implemented 
214flag of EstoniaEstoniaadopted 28 June 1992 
215flag of EthiopiaEthiopiaratified December 1994; effective 22 August 1995 
216flag of RwandaRwandaon 5 May 1995 the Transitional National Assembly adopted as Fundamental Law the constitution of 18 June 1991 provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord the July 1994 Declaration by the Rwanda Patriotic Front and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding 
217flag of GabonGabonadopted 14 March 1991 
218flag of Hong KongHong KongBasic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress is Hong Kong's 'mini-constitution' 
219flag of QatarQatarprovisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972; in July 1999 Amir HAMAD issued a decree forming a committee to draft a permanent constitution 
220flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricoratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952 
221flag of GeorgiaGeorgiaadopted 17 October 1995 
222flag of GhanaGhananew constitution approved 28 April 1992 
223flag of GuamGuamOrganic Act of 1 August 1950 
224flag of GuernseyGuernseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
225flag of HaitiHaitiapproved March 1987; suspended June 1988 with most articles reinstated March 1989; in October 1991 government claimed to be observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule October 1994 
226flag of ParaguayParaguaypromulgated 20 June 1992 
227flag of Holy SeeHoly SeeApostolic Constitution of 1967 
228flag of AfghanistanAfghanistannone 

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