Country ranking for field: constitution 1996

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This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” The amendments subfield summarizes the process of amending a country’s constitution – from proposal through passage – and the dates of amendments, which are treated in the same manner as the constitution dates. Where appropriate, summaries are composed from English-language translations of non-English constitutions, which derive from official or non-official translations or machine translators.|The main steps in creating a constitution and amending it usually include the following steps: proposal, drafting, legislative and/or executive branch review and approval, public referendum, and entry into law. In many countries this process is lengthy. Terms commonly used to describe constitutional changes are “amended,” “revised,” or “reformed.” In countries such as South Korea and Turkmenistan, sources differ as to whether changes are stated as new constitutions or are amendments/revisions to existing ones.|A few countries including Canada, Israel, and the UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed. Some special regions (Hong Kong, Macau) and countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia) use the term “basic law” instead of constitution.|A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar (UK), Greenland and Faroe Islands (Denmark), Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten (Netherlands), and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US) have their own constitutions.

1flag of NigeriaNigeria1979 
2flag of MaltaMalta1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December 1974 
3flag of Isle of ManIsle of Man1961 Isle of Man Constitution Act 
4flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islands1959 revised 1972 and 1992 
5flag of AustriaAustria1920; revised 1929 
6flag of PeruPeru31 December 1993 
7flag of ChadChad31 March 1995 passed by referendum 
8flag of MalaysiaMalaysia31 August 1957 amended 16 September 1963 
9flag of GuatemalaGuatemala31 May 1985 effective 14 January 1986 
10flag of GibraltarGibraltar30 May 1969 
11flag of MozambiqueMozambique30 November 1990 
12flag of VanuatuVanuatu30 July 1980 
13flag of BarbadosBarbados30 November 1966 
14flag of BruneiBrunei29 September 1959 
15flag of IrelandIreland29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebescite 
16flag of NauruNauru29 January 1968 
17flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerland29 May 1874 
18flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia28 September 1958 
19flag of French GuianaFrench Guiana28 September 1958 
20flag of FranceFrance28 September 1958 amended concerning election of president in 1962 amended to comply with provisions of EU Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993 
21flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republic28 November 1966 
22flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupe28 September 1958 
23flag of MartiniqueMartinique28 September 1958 
24flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledonia28 September 1958 
25flag of MayotteMayotte28 September 1958 
26flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna28 September 1958 
27flag of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and Montenegro27 April 1992 
28flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines27 October 1979 
29flag of UruguayUruguay27 November 1966 effective February 1967 suspended 27 June 1973 new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980 
30flag of South AfricaSouth Africa27 April 1994 
31flag of IndiaIndia26 January 1950 
32flag of BahrainBahrain26 May 1973 effective 6 December 1973 
33flag of PortugalPortugal25 April 1976 revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989 
34flag of TanzaniaTanzania25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984 
35flag of SomaliaSomalia25 August 1979 presidential approval 23 September 1979 
36flag of South KoreaSouth Korea25 February 1988 
37flag of The GambiaThe Gambia24 April 1970 
38flag of CubaCuba24 February 1976 
39flag of ZaireZaire24 June 1967 amended August 1974 revised 15 February 1978; amended April 1990; new transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994 
40flag of GuineaGuinea23 December 1990 
41flag of GermanyGermany23 May 1949 known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990 
42flag of LebanonLebanon23 May 1926 amended a number of times 
43flag of VenezuelaVenezuela23 January 1961 
44flag of Saint LuciaSaint Lucia22 February 1979 
45flag of IraqIraq22 September 1968 effective 16 July 1970 
46flag of ZimbabweZimbabwe21 December 1979 
47flag of BelizeBelize21 September 1981 
48flag of El SalvadorEl Salvador20 December 1983 
49flag of CameroonCameroon20 May 1972 
50flag of GrenadaGrenada19 December 1973 
51flag of MadagascarMadagascar19 August 1992 by national referendum 
52flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis19 September 1983 
53flag of AlgeriaAlgeria19 November 1976 effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 and 23 February 1989 
54flag of NiueNiue19 October 1974 
55flag of RwandaRwanda18 June 1991 
56flag of SeychellesSeychelles18 June 1993 
57flag of HungaryHungary18 August 1949 effective 20 August 1949 revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight 
58flag of MalawiMalawi18 May 1995; most recent revision 
59flag of FinlandFinland17 July 1919 
60flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlands17 February 1983 
61flag of United StatesUnited States17 September 1787 effective 4 March 1789 
62flag of MonacoMonaco17 December 1962 
63flag of MacauMacau17 February 1976 Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by Beijing promulgated 31 March 1993 
64flag of NorwayNorway17 May 1814 modified in 1884 
65flag of LuxembourgLuxembourg17 October 1868 occasional revisions 
66flag of IcelandIceland16 June 1944 effective 17 June 1944 
67flag of CyprusCyprus16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus" which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985 
68flag of YemenYemen16 May 1991 
69flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea16 September 1975 
70flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau16 May 1984 amended 4 May 1991 
71flag of VietnamVietnam15 April 1992 
72flag of SyriaSyria13 March 1973 
73flag of BurundiBurundi13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system 
74flag of MauritaniaMauritania12 July 1991 
75flag of KiribatiKiribati12 July 1979 
76flag of KenyaKenya12 December 1963 amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 1983 1986 1988 1991 and 1992 
77flag of SudanSudan12 April 1973 suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution to be drafted following national elections held in March 1996 
78flag of MauritiusMauritius12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992 
79flag of PanamaPanama11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983 
80flag of HondurasHonduras11 January 1982 effective 20 January 1982 
81flag of LibyaLibya11 December 1969 amended 2 March 1977 
82flag of GreeceGreece11 June 1975 
83flag of AngolaAngola11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978 11 August 1980 6 March 1991 and 26 August 1992 
84flag of ChileChile11 September 1980 effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989 
85flag of EgyptEgypt11 September 1971 
86flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesia10 May 1979 
87flag of PakistanPakistan10 April 1973 suspended 5 July 1977 restored with amendments 30 December 1985 
88flag of MoroccoMorocco10 March 1972 revised 4 September 1992 
89flag of EcuadorEcuador10 August 1979 
90flag of The BahamasThe Bahamas10 July 1973 
91flag of FijiFiji10 October 1970 
92flag of NepalNepal9 November 1990 
93flag of NicaraguaNicaragua9 January 1987 
94flag of AustraliaAustralia9 July 1900 effective 1 January 1901 
95flag of Costa RicaCosta Rica9 November 1949 
96flag of BermudaBermuda8 June 1968 
97flag of RomaniaRomania8 December 1991 
98flag of JordanJordan8 January 1952 
99flag of San MarinoSan Marino8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution 
100flag of UgandaUganda8 October 1995; adopted by the interim 284-member Constituent Assembly charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved on promulgation of the constitution in October 1995 
101flag of ComorosComoros7 June 1992 
102flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands7 July 1978 
103flag of BelgiumBelgium7 February 1831 last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state 
104flag of TurkeyTurkey7 November 1982 
105flag of JamaicaJamaica6 August 1962 
106flag of SpainSpain6 December 1978 effective 29 December 1978 
107flag of GuyanaGuyana6 October 1980 
108flag of LiberiaLiberia6 January 1986 
109flag of BrazilBrazil5 October 1988 
110flag of MexicoMexico5 February 1917 
111flag of ColombiaColombia5 July 1991 
112flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands5 June 1953 
113flag of DenmarkDenmark5 June 1953 
114flag of GreenlandGreenland5 June 1953 
115flag of LiechtensteinLiechtenstein5 October 1921 
116flag of MaldivesMaldives4 June 1968 
117flag of Cook IslandsCook Islands4 August 1965 
118flag of BangladeshBangladesh4 November 1972 effective 16 December 1972 suspended following coup of 24 March 1982 restored 10 November 1986 amended many times 
119flag of TongaTonga4 November 1875 revised 1 January 1967 
120flag of MyanmarMyanmar3 January 1974 
121flag of JapanJapan3 May 1947 
122flag of SenegalSenegal3 March 1963 revised 1991 
123flag of DominicaDominica3 November 1978 
124flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times last time November 1990 
125flag of SingaporeSingapore3 June 1959 amended 1965 
126flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands3 October 1985 
127flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates2 December 1971 
128flag of PhilippinesPhilippines2 February 1987 effective 11 February 1987 
129flag of ZambiaZambia2 August 1991 
130flag of LesothoLesotho2 April 1993 
131flag of BoliviaBolivia2 February 1967 
132flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Faso2 June 1991 
133flag of BeninBenin2 December 1990 
134flag of IranIran2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership 
135flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago1 August 1976 
136flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helena1 January 1989 
137flag of SwedenSweden1 January 1975 
138flag of TaiwanTaiwan1 January 1947 amended in 1992 presently undergoing revision 
139flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands1 June 1977 
140flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands1 May 1979 
141flag of TunisiaTunisia1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988 
142flag of TuvaluTuvalu1 October 1978 
143flag of ArubaAruba1 January 1986 
144flag of ArgentinaArgentina1 May 1853; revised August 1994 
145flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda1 November 1981 
146flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoa1 January 1962 
147flag of PalauPalau1 January 1981 
148flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leone1 October 1991; suspended following 19 April 1992 coup 
149flag of ItalyItaly1 January 1948 
150flag of IsraelIsraelNo formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment 
151flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanAdopted 5 May 1993 
152flag of LaosLaosPromulgated 14 August 1991 
153flag of NamibiaNamibiaRatified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990 
154flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovinafirst promulgated in 1974 
155flag of TokelauTokelauAdministered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 as amended in 1970 
156flag of TogoTogoMultiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992 
157flag of BotswanaBotswanaMarch 1965 effective 30 September 1966 
158flag of ThailandThailandNew constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992 
159flag of BulgariaBulgariaAdopted 12 July 1991 
160flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanAdopted 18 May 1992 
161flag of KuwaitKuwaitApproved and promulgated 11 November 1962 
162flag of TajikistanTajikistanNew constitution adopted 6 November 1994 
163flag of KazakhstanKazakhstanAdopted 28 January 1993; has been amended in April 1995 and August 1995 
164flag of Cabo VerdeCabo VerdeNew constitution came into force 25 September 1992 
165flag of CambodiaCambodiaPromulgated September 1993 
166flag of New ZealandNew ZealandNo formal written constitution; consists of various documents including certain acts of the U.K 
167flag of LatviaLatviaNewly elected Parliament in 1993 restored the 1933 constitution 
168flag of AlbaniaAlbaniaAn interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending 
169flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos IslandsIntroduced 30 August 1976 suspended in 1986 restored and revised 5 March 1988 
170flag of MongoliaMongoliaAdopted 13 January 1992 
171flag of American SamoaAmerican SamoaRatified 1966 in effect 1967 
172flag of AndorraAndorraAndorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993 
173flag of AnguillaAnguillaAnguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended 1990 
174flag of MacedoniaMacedoniaAdopted 17 November 1991 effective 20 November 1991 
175flag of MoldovaMoldovaNew constitution adopted NA July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979 
176flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaAdopted 25 October 1992 
177flag of ArmeniaArmeniaAdopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995 
178flag of UzbekistanUzbekistanNew constitution adopted 8 December 1992 
179flag of SurinameSurinameRatified 30 September 1987 
180flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanAdopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution 
181flag of BelarusBelarusAdopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of April 1978 
182flag of United KingdomUnited KingdomUnwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
183flag of MontserratMontserratPresent constitution came into force 19 December 1989 
184flag of UkraineUkraineadopted 28 June 1996 
185flag of BhutanBhutanNo written constitution or bill of rights 
186flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin IslandsRevised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 
187flag of SwazilandSwazilandNone; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but has not been formally presented to the people 
188flag of Sri LankaSri LankaAdopted 16 August 1978 
189flag of CanadaCanadaAmended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs 
190flag of HaitiHaitiApproved March 1987 suspended June 1988 most articles reinstated March 1989; in October 1991 government claimed to be observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule October 1994 
191flag of GhanaGhanaNew constitution approved 28 April 1992 
192flag of QatarQatarProvisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970 
193flag of Puerto RicoPuerto RicoRatified 3 March 1952; approved by U.S 
194flag of GuamGuamOrganic Act of 1 August 1950 
195flag of PolandPolandInterim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992 replacing the Communist-imposed constitution of 22 July 1952; new democratic constitution being drafted 
196flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn IslandsLocal Government Ordinance of 1964 
197flag of GuernseyGuernseyUnwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
198flag of ParaguayParaguayPromulgated 20 June 1992 
199flag of GeorgiaGeorgiaAdopted 21 February 1921; currently amending constitution for Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995 
200flag of Holy SeeHoly SeeApostolic Constitution of 1967 
201flag of Hong KongHong Kongthe Letters Patent together with the Royal Instructions form the written constitution of Hong Kong; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for scheduled reversion to China on 1 July 1997 
202flag of NigerNigerApproved by national referendum 16 December 1992; promulgated January 1993 
203flag of IndonesiaIndonesiaAugust 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959 
204flag of OmanOmanNone 
205flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsCovenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 and the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 
206flag of North KoreaNorth KoreaAdopted 1948 completely revised 27 December 1972 revised again in April 1992 
207flag of RussiaRussiaAdopted 12 December 1993 
208flag of JerseyJerseyUnwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
209flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk IslandNorfolk Island Act of 1979 
210flag of CroatiaCroatiaAdopted on 22 December 1990 
211flag of Central African RepublicCentral African RepublicPassed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995 
212flag of ChinaChinaMost recent promulgated 4 December 1982 
213flag of Christmas IslandChristmas IslandChristmas Island Act of 1958 
214flag of Cocos IslandsCocos IslandsCocos 
215flag of CongoCongoNew constitution approved by referendum March 1992 
216flag of SloveniaSloveniaAdopted 23 December 1991 effective 23 December 1991 
217flag of SlovakiaSlovakiaRatified 1 September 1992 fully effective 1 January 1993 
218flag of MaliMaliAdopted 12 January 1992 
219flag of GabonGabonAdopted 14 March 1991 
220flag of Czech RepublicCzech RepublicRatified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993 
221flag of DjiboutiDjiboutiMultiparty constitution approved in referendum 4 September 1992 
222flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial GuineaNew constitution 17 November 1991 
223flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaNone; governed according to Shari'a 
224flag of EritreaEritreaTransitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993 
225flag of EstoniaEstoniaAdopted 28 June 1992 
226flag of EthiopiaEthiopiaNew constitution promulgated in December 1994 
227flag of AfghanistanAfghanistannone 

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