Country ranking for field: constitution 1992

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This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” The amendments subfield summarizes the process of amending a country’s constitution – from proposal through passage – and the dates of amendments, which are treated in the same manner as the constitution dates. Where appropriate, summaries are composed from English-language translations of non-English constitutions, which derive from official or non-official translations or machine translators.|The main steps in creating a constitution and amending it usually include the following steps: proposal, drafting, legislative and/or executive branch review and approval, public referendum, and entry into law. In many countries this process is lengthy. Terms commonly used to describe constitutional changes are “amended,” “revised,” or “reformed.” In countries such as South Korea and Turkmenistan, sources differ as to whether changes are stated as new constitutions or are amendments/revisions to existing ones.|A few countries including Canada, Israel, and the UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed. Some special regions (Hong Kong, Macau) and countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia) use the term “basic law” instead of constitution.|A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar (UK), Greenland and Faroe Islands (Denmark), Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten (Netherlands), and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US) have their own constitutions.

1flag of TogoTogo1980 
2flag of Isle of ManIsle of Man1961 Isle of Man Constitution Act 
3flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islands1959 revised 1972 
4flag of AustriaAustria1920; revised 1929 
5flag of Sri LankaSri Lanka31 August 1978 
6flag of MalaysiaMalaysia31 August 1957 amended 16 September 1963 when Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia 
7flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago31 August 1976 
8flag of GuatemalaGuatemala31 May 1985 effective 14 January 1986 
9flag of BarbadosBarbados30 November 1966 
10flag of GibraltarGibraltar30 May 1969 
11flag of VanuatuVanuatu30 July 1980 
12flag of MozambiqueMozambique30 November 1990 
13flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerland29 May 1874 
14flag of IrelandIreland29 December 1937; adopted 1937 
15flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antilles29 December 1954 Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands as amended 
16flag of BruneiBrunei29 September 1959 
17flag of NauruNauru29 January 1968 
18flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia28 September 1958 
19flag of French GuianaFrench Guiana28 September 1958 
20flag of FranceFrance28 September 1958 amended concerning election of president in 1962 
21flag of MayotteMayotte28 September 1958 
22flag of PeruPeru28 July 1980 
23flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna28 September 1958 
24flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledonia28 September 1958 
25flag of MartiniqueMartinique28 September 1958 
26flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republic28 November 1966 
27flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelon28 September 1958 
28flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupe28 September 1958 
29flag of RéunionRéunion28 September 1958 
30flag of ConstitutionConstitution27 August 1983 suspended February 1986; draft constitution approved March 1987 suspended June 1988 most articles reinstated March 1989; October 1991 government claims to be observing the 
31flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines27 October 1979 
32flag of June 1973 new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980June 1973 new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 198027 November 1966 effective February 1967 suspended 27 
33flag of MaltaMalta26 April 1974 effective 2 June 1974 
34flag of IndiaIndia26 January 1950 
35flag of BahrainBahrain26 May 1973 effective 6 December 1973 
36flag of LebanonLebanon26 May 1926 
37flag of Constitution that was promulgated on 20 June 1992Constitution that was promulgated on 20 June 199225 August 1967; Constituent Assembly rewrote the 
38flag of PortugalPortugal25 April 1976 revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989 
39flag of TaiwanTaiwan25 December 1947 presently undergoing revision 
40flag of South KoreaSouth Korea25 February 1988 
41flag of SomaliaSomalia25 August 1979 presidential approval 23 September 1979 
42flag of ZaireZaire24 June 1967 amended August 1974 revised 15 February 1978; amended April 1990; new constitution to be promulgated in 1992 
43flag of The GambiaThe Gambia24 April 1970 
44flag of GhanaGhana24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981 
45flag of CubaCuba24 February 1976 
46flag of VenezuelaVenezuela23 January 1961 
47flag of GuineaGuinea23 December 1990 
48flag of GermanyGermany23 May 1949 provisional constitution known as Basic Law 
49flag of IraqIraq22 September 1968 effective 16 July 1970 
50flag of National Charter 1 March 1991National Charter 1 March 199122 December 1989 suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional 
51flag of ThailandThailand22 December 1978; new constitution approved 7 December 1991 
52flag of Saint LuciaSaint Lucia22 February 1979 
53flag of MadagascarMadagascar21 December 1975; note - a new constitution is to be in place before 1993 
54flag of GabonGabon21 February 1961 revised 15 April 1975 
55flag of ZimbabweZimbabwe21 December 1979 
56flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republic21 November 1986 
57flag of BelizeBelize21 September 1981 
58flag of September 1987; a constitutional committee was charged with drafting a new constitution created in February 1991; a referendum on the new constitution scheduled for March 1992September 1987; a constitutional committee was charged with drafting a new constitution created in February 1991; a referendum on the new constitution scheduled for March 199220 November 1981; suspended following the coup of 3 
59flag of CameroonCameroon20 May 1972 
60flag of El SalvadorEl Salvador20 December 1983 
61flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis19 September 1983 
62flag of February 1989February 198919 November 1976 effective 22 November 1976; revised 
63flag of GrenadaGrenada19 December 1973 
64flag of NiueNiue19 October 1974 
65flag of RwandaRwanda18 June 1991 
66flag of VietnamVietnam18 December 1980; new Constitution to be approved Spring 1992 
67flag of HungaryHungary18 August 1949 effective 20 August 1949 revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight 
68flag of LuxembourgLuxembourg17 October 1868 occasional revisions 
69flag of NorwayNorway17 May 1814 modified in 1884 
70flag of MacauMacau17 February 1976 Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by Beijing awaiting final approval 
71flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlands17 February 1983 
72flag of MonacoMonaco17 December 1962 
73flag of United StatesUnited States17 September 1787 effective 4 June 1789 
74flag of FinlandFinland17 July 1919 
75flag of IcelandIceland16 June 1944 effective 17 June 1944 
76flag of KuwaitKuwait16 November 1962 
77flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau16 May 1984 
78flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea16 September 1975 
79flag of YemenYemen16 April 1991 
80flag of Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 TurkishGreek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between 
81flag of TanzaniaTanzania15 March 1984 
82flag of SyriaSyria13 March 1973 
83flag of MauritiusMauritius12 March 1968 
84flag of SudanSudan12 April 1973 suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989 
85flag of KiribatiKiribati12 July 1979 
86flag of MongoliaMongolia12 February 1992 
87flag of KenyaKenya12 December 1963 amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979 1983 1986 1988 and 1991 
88flag of HondurasHonduras11 January 1982 effective 20 January 1982 
89flag of July 1989July 198911 September 1980 effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 
90flag of LibyaLibya11 December 1969 amended 2 March 1977 
91flag of GreeceGreece11 June 1975 
92flag of PanamaPanama11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983 
93flag of EgyptEgypt11 September 1971 
94flag of AngolaAngola11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978 11 August 1980 and 6 March 1991 
95flag of EcuadorEcuador10 August 1979 
96flag of PakistanPakistan10 April 1973 suspended 5 July 1977 restored with amendments 30 December 1985 
97flag of MoroccoMorocco10 March 1972 
98flag of The BahamasThe Bahamas10 July 1973 
99flag of FijiFiji10 October 1970 
100flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesia10 May 1979 
101flag of Costa RicaCosta Rica9 November 1949 
102flag of AustraliaAustralia9 July 1900 effective 1 January 1901 
103flag of NepalNepal9 November 1990 
104flag of San MarinoSan Marino8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution 
105flag of JordanJordan8 January 1952 
106flag of RomaniaRomania8 December 1991 
107flag of BermudaBermuda8 June 1968 
108flag of CongoCongo8 July 1979 currently being modified 
109flag of UgandaUganda8 September 1967 in process of constitutional revision 
110flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verde7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981 December 1988 and 28 September 1990 
111flag of TurkeyTurkey7 November 1982 
112flag of BelgiumBelgium7 February 1831 last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the Belgian state 
113flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands7 July 1978 
114flag of SpainSpain6 December 1978 effective 29 December 1978 
115flag of LiberiaLiberia6 January 1986 
116flag of GuyanaGuyana6 October 1980 
117flag of JamaicaJamaica6 August 1962 
118flag of MalawiMalawi6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974 
119flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe5 November 1975 approved 15 December 1982 
120flag of MexicoMexico5 February 1917 
121flag of SeychellesSeychelles5 June 1979 
122flag of LiechtensteinLiechtenstein5 October 1921 
123flag of BrazilBrazil5 October 1988 
124flag of ColombiaColombia5 July 1991 
125flag of DenmarkDenmark5 June 1953 
126flag of MaldivesMaldives4 June 1964 
127flag of BangladeshBangladesh4 November 1972 effective 16 December 1972 suspended following coup of 24 March 1982 restored 10 November 1986 amended NA March 1991 
128flag of TongaTonga4 November 1875 revised 1 January 1967 
129flag of LesothoLesotho4 October 1966 suspended January 1970 
130flag of Cook IslandsCook Islands4 August 1965 
131flag of JapanJapan3 May 1947 
132flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands3 October 1985 
133flag of South AfricaSouth Africa3 September 1984 
134flag of SingaporeSingapore3 June 1959 amended 1965; based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution 
135flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoire3 November 1960 
136flag of DominicaDominica3 November 1978 
137flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islands3 October 1985 
138flag of SenegalSenegal3 March 1963 last revised in 1991 
139flag of MyanmarMyanmar3 January 1974 
140flag of January 1992January 19922 June 1974 effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981 and March 1985; new constitution presented during national reform conference in August 1991; a constitutional referendum is scheduled for 16 
141flag of IranIran2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership 
142flag of PhilippinesPhilippines2 February 1987 effective 11 February 1987 
143flag of BeninBenin2 December 1990 
144flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates2 December 1971 
145flag of BoliviaBolivia2 February 1967 
146flag of ArubaAruba1 January 1986 
147flag of TuvaluTuvalu1 October 1978 
148flag of British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands1 June 1977 
149flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leone1 October 1991; amended September 1991 
150flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands1 May 1979 
151flag of ComorosComoros1 October 1978 amended October 1982 and January 1985 
152flag of MontserratMontserrat1 January 1960 
153flag of TunisiaTunisia1 June 1959 
154flag of ArgentinaArgentina1 May 1853 
155flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda1 November 1981 
156flag of AnguillaAnguilla1 April 1982 
157flag of NigeriaNigeria1 October 1979 amended 9 February 1984 revised 1989 
158flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoa1 January 1962 
159flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helena1 January 1967 
160flag of SwedenSweden1 January 1975 
161flag of ItalyItaly1 January 1948 
162flag of NamibiaNamibiaratified 9 February 1990 
163flag of BulgariaBulgariaadopted 12 July 1991 
164flag of BotswanaBotswanaMarch 1965 effective 30 September 1966 
165flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaNA; Constitutional Commission has drafted a new constitution that will be sent to Parliament for ratification 
166flag of TajikistanTajikistanadopted NA April 1978 
167flag of Burkina FasoBurkina FasoJune 1991 
168flag of CambodiaCambodiaa new constitution will be drafted after the national election in 1993 
169flag of CanadaCanadaamended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs 
170flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaNA 
171flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanadopted 18 May 1992 
172flag of BhutanBhutanno written constitution or bill of rights 
173flag of TokelauTokelauadministered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 as amended in 1970 
174flag of BelarusBelarusadopted April 1978 
175flag of SurinameSurinameratified 30 September 1987 
176flag of Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contentsConstitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contentsintroduced 30 August 1976 suspended in 1986 and a 
177flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin IslandsRevised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 
178flag of MacedoniaMacedoniaadopted 17 November 1991 effective 20 November 1991 
179flag of UkraineUkrainecurrently being drafted 
180flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdomunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
181flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijanadopted NA April 1978 
182flag of UzbekistanUzbekistanNA 
183flag of ArmeniaArmeniaadopted NA April 1978 effective NA 
184flag of AndorraAndorranone; some pareatges and decrees mostly custom and usage 
185flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoaratified 1966 in effect 1967; note - a comprehensive revision is awaiting ratification by the US Congress 
186flag of ZambiaZambiaNA August 1991 
187flag of April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but has not been formally presented to the peopleApril 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978 but has not been formally presented to the peoplenone; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 
188flag of LatviaLatviaApril 1978 currently rewriting constitution but readopted the 1922 Constitution 
189flag of ChinaChinamost recent promulgated 4 December 1982 
190flag of Hong KongHong Kongunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997 
191flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn IslandsLocal Government Ordinance of 1964 
192flag of GeorgiaGeorgiaadopted NA effective NA 
193flag of GreenlandGreenlandDanish 
194flag of GuamGuamOrganic Act of 1 August 1950 
195flag of GuernseyGuernseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
196flag of Holy SeeHoly SeeApostolic Constitution of 1967 
197flag of OmanOmannone 
198flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsCovenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 
199flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe IslandsDanish 
200flag of North KoreaNorth Koreaadopted 1948 revised 27 December 1972 
201flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk IslandNorfolk Island Act of 1957 
202flag of Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959Provisional Constitution of 1950 restored 5 July 1959August 1945 abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and 
203flag of National Democratic Reform ConferenceNational Democratic Reform ConferenceDecember 1989 constitution revised November 1991 by 
204flag of NicaraguaNicaraguaJanuary 1987 
205flag of Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987 but has not been enactedConstitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987 but has not been enactedno formal written constitution; consists of various documents including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; 
206flag of IsraelIsraelno formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment 
207flag of PolandPolandCommunist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952; developing a democratic Constitution 
208flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricoratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952 
209flag of Christmas IslandChristmas IslandChristmas Island Act of 1958 
210flag of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and MontenegroNA April 1992 
211flag of Cocos IslandsCocos IslandsCocos 
212flag of MauritaniaMauritaniacurrently 12 July 1991; 20 May 1961 Constitution abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978; provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in 1981; constitutional charter published 27 February 1985 after Taya came to power; latest constitution approved after general referendum 12 July 1991 
213flag of AlbaniaAlbaniaan interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for adoption in 1992 
214flag of MoldovaMoldovaformulating a new constitution; old constitution is still in effect but has been heavily amended during the past few years 
215flag of SloveniaSloveniaadopted 23 December 1991 effective 23 December 1991 
216flag of LaosLaospromulgated August 1991 
217flag of CroatiaCroatiapromulgated on 22 December 1990 
218flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabianone; governed according to Shari`a 
219flag of QatarQatarprovisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970 
220flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanadopted NA effective 20 April 1978 amended 23 September 1989; note - new constitution is being drafted 
221flag of AssemblyAssemblypartial constitution ratified January 1981 by the National 
222flag of KazakhstanKazakhstannew postindependence constitution under preparation 
223flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineanew constitution 17 November 1991 
224flag of EstoniaEstoniacurrently rewriting constitution but readopted the constitution of 1938 
225flag of EthiopiaEthiopiato be redrafted by 1993 
226flag of RussiaRussiaa new constitution is in the process of being drafted 
227flag of JerseyJerseyunwritten; partly statutes partly common law and practice 
228flag of AfghanistanAfghanistanthe old Communist-era constitution probably will be replaced with an Islamic constitution 

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