Country ranking for field: environment current issues 1992

Other rankings:  

This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

The WorldWorldlarge areas subject to severe weather
1flag of MaldivesMaldives1200 
2flag of CanadaCanada80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development 
3flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands30 islands 
4flag of The NetherlandsThe Netherlands27% of the land area is below sea level and protected from the North Sea by dikes 
5flag of AfghanistanAfghanistandamaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation desertification overgrazing deforestation pollution 
6flag of OmanOmansummer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms in interior; sparse natural freshwater resources 
7flag of NorwayNorwayair and water pollution; acid rain; note - strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with Russia 
8flag of Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana Islandsactive volcanos on Pagan and Agrihan; subject to typhoons during the rainy season 
9flag of North KoreaNorth Koreamountainous interior is isolated nearly inaccessible and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding 
10flag of Norfolk IslandNorfolk Islandsubject to typhoons 
11flag of PakistanPakistanfrequent earthquakes occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains 
12flag of NiueNiuesubject to typhoons 
13flag of NigeriaNigeriarecent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; desertification; soil degradation rapid deforestation 
14flag of NigerNigerrecurrent drought and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion 
15flag of NicaraguaNicaraguasubject to destructive earthquakes volcanoes landslides and occasional severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
16flag of New ZealandNew Zealandearthquakes are common though usually not severe 
17flag of China Sea; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical cyclonesChina Sea; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical cyclonesendangered marine species include the dugong sea lion sea otter seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South 
18flag of Palmyra AtollPalmyra Atollabout 50 islets covered with dense vegetation coconut trees and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall 
19flag of Netherlands AntillesNetherlands AntillesCuracao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt so rarely threatened; Sint Maarten Saba and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes from July to October; Note: consists of two island groups - Curacao and Bonaire are located off the coast of Venezuela and Sint Maarten Saba and Sint Eustatius lie 800 km to the north 
20flag of PanamaPanamadense tropical forest in east and northwest 
21flag of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guineaone of world's largest swamps along southwest coast; some active volcanos; frequent earthquakes 
22flag of Paracel IslandsParacel Islandssubject to typhoons 
23flag of ParaguayParaguaylocal flooding in southeast 
24flag of PeruPerusubject to earthquakes tsunamis landslides mild volcanic activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima 
25flag of PhilippinesPhilippinesastride typhoon belt usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides active volcanoes destructive earthquakes tsunami; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
26flag of Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islandssubject to typhoons 
27flag of PolandPolandplain crossed by a few north flowing meandering streams; severe air and water pollution in south 
28flag of PortugalPortugalAzores subject to severe earthquakes 
29flag of Puerto RicoPuerto Ricomany small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north 
30flag of QatarQatarhaze duststorms sandstorms common; limited freshwater resources mean increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities 
31flag of RomaniaRomaniafrequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides; air pollution in south 
32flag of RussiaRussiadespite its size only a small percentage of land is arable and much is too far north; permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; catastrophic pollution of land air water including both inland waterways and sea coasts 
33flag of RwandaRwandadeforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; periodic droughts 
34flag of New CaledoniaNew Caledoniatyphoons most frequent from November to March 
35flag of Navassa IslandNavassa Islandmostly exposed rock but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees scattered cactus 
36flag of NepalNepalcontains eight of world's 10 highest peaks; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
37flag of MartiniqueMartiniquesubject to hurricanes flooding and volcanic activity that result in an average of one major natural disaster every five years 
38flag of LiberiaLiberiaWest Africa's largest tropical rain forest subject to deforestation 
39flag of LibyaLibyahot dry dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources 
40flag of LiechtensteinLiechtensteinvariety of microclimatic variations based on elevation 
41flag of LithuaniaLithuaniaNA 
42flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgdeforestation 
43flag of MacauMacauessentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland 
44flag of MacedoniaMacedoniaMacedonia suffers from high seismic hazard; air pollution from metallurgical plants; Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central; Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe 
45flag of MadagascarMadagascarsubject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
46flag of MalawiMalawideforestation 
47flag of MalaysiaMalaysiasubject to flooding; air and water pollution 
48flag of MaliMalihot dust-laden harmattan; haze common during dry seasons; desertification 
49flag of MaltaMaltanumerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very scarce - increasing reliance on desalination 
50flag of Marshall IslandsMarshall Islandsoccasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1152 islands 
51flag of March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the SenegalMarch and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegalhot dry dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in 
52flag of Saint HelenaSaint Helenavery few perennial streams 
53flag of MauritiusMauritiussubject to cyclones 
54flag of MayotteMayottesubject to cyclones during rainy season 
55flag of MexicoMexicosubject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted in north inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border 
56flag of Midway IslandsMidway Islandscoral atoll 
57flag of MoldovaMoldovaNA 
58flag of MonacoMonacoalmost entirely urban 
59flag of MongoliaMongoliaharsh and rugged 
60flag of MontserratMontserratsubject to severe hurricanes from June to November 
61flag of MoroccoMorocconorthern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; desertification 
62flag of MozambiqueMozambiquesevere drought and floods occur in south; desertification 
63flag of MyanmarMyanmarsubject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season 
64flag of NamibiaNamibiainhospitable with very limited natural water resources; desertification 
65flag of NauruNauruonly 53 km south of Equator 
66flag of RéunionRéunionperiodic devastating cyclones; Note: located 750 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean 
67flag of Saint LuciaSaint Luciasubject to hurricanes and volcanic activity; deforestation; soil erosion 
68flag of Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevissubject to hurricanes 
69flag of United KingdomUnited Kingdompollution control measures improving air water quality; because of heavily indented coastline no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters 
70flag of TogoTogohot dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation 
71flag of TokelauTokelaulies in Pacific typhoon belt 
72flag of TongaTongaarchipelago of 170 islands 
73flag of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobagooutside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms 
74flag of Tromelin IslandTromelin Islandwildlife sanctuary 
75flag of TunisiaTunisiadeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
76flag of TurkeyTurkeysubject to severe earthquakes especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification 
77flag of TurkmenistanTurkmenistanNA 
78flag of TuvaluTuvalusevere tropical storms are rare 
79flag of U.S. Virgin IslandsU.S. Virgin Islandsrarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts floods earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources 
80flag of UgandaUgandastraddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion 
81flag of UkraineUkraineair and water pollution deforestation radiation contamination around Chernobyl nuclear plant 
82flag of United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emiratesfrequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification 
83flag of United StatesUnited Statespollution control measures improving air and water quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis volcanoes and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development 
84flag of The BahamasThe Bahamassubject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood damage 
85flag of UruguayUruguaysubject to seasonally high winds droughts floods 
86flag of UzbekistanUzbekistandrying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts 
87flag of VanuatuVanuatusubject to tropical cyclones or typhoons 
88flag of VenezuelaVenezuelasubject to floods rockslides mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo 
89flag of VietnamVietnamoccasional typhoons 
90flag of Wake IslandWake Islandsubject to occasional typhoons 
91flag of Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futunaboth island groups have fringing reefs 
92flag of West BankWest Bankhighlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers 
93flag of Western SaharaWestern Saharahot dry dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time often severely restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land 
94flag of Western SamoaWestern Samoasubject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism; Note: located 4300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand 
95flag of YemenYemensubject to sand and dust storms in summer; scarcity of natural freshwater resources; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
96flag of ZaireZairedense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands; periodic droughts in south; Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean 
97flag of ZambiaZambiadeforestation; soil erosion; desertification 
98flag of The GambiaThe Gambiadeforestation 
99flag of ThailandThailandair and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area 
100flag of LebanonLebanonrugged terrain historically helped isolate protect and develop numerous factional groups based on religion clan ethnicity; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification 
101flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsreindeer introduced early in this century live on South; Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to approach the; South Sandwich Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism; Note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays which provide good anchorage 
102flag of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadinessubject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat 
103flag of Saint-Pierre and MiquelonSaint-Pierre and Miquelonvegetation scanty; Note: located 25 km south of Newfoundland Canada in the North Atlantic; Ocean 
104flag of San MarinoSan Marinodominated by the Appenines 
105flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabiano perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing extensive coastal seawater desalination facilities; desertification 
106flag of SenegalSenegallowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
107flag of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and Montenegrocoastal water pollution from sewage outlets especially in tourist related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution along Danube from industrial waste dump into the Sava which drains into the Danube; subject to destructive earthquakes 
108flag of SeychellesSeychelleslies outside the cyclone belt so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible; no fresh water - catchments collect rain; 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands 
109flag of Sierra LeoneSierra Leoneextensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea; deforestation; soil degradation 
110flag of SingaporeSingaporemostly urban and industrialized 
111flag of SloveniaSloveniaSava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; heavy metals and toxic chemicals along coastal waters; near Koper forest damage from air pollutants originating at metallurgical and chemical plants; subject to flooding and earthquakes 
112flag of Solomon IslandsSolomon Islandssubject to typhoons which are rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earth tremors 
113flag of SomaliaSomaliarecurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
114flag of South AfricaSouth Africalack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures 
115flag of South KoreaSouth Koreaoccasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes in southwest; air pollution in large cities 
116flag of AfricaAfricalack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in 
117flag of SpainSpaindeforestation; air pollution 
118flag of Spratly IslandsSpratly Islandssubject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands atolls shoals and coral reefs 
119flag of Sri LankaSri Lankaoccasional cyclones tornados; deforestation; soil erosion 
120flag of SudanSudandominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms; desertification 
121flag of SurinameSurinamemostly tropical rain forest 
122flag of SvalbardSvalbardgreat calving glaciers descend to the sea 
123flag of SwazilandSwazilandovergrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion 
124flag of SwedenSwedenwater pollution; acid rain 
125flag of SwitzerlandSwitzerlanddominated by Alps 
126flag of SyriaSyriadeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
127flag of São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipedeforestation; soil erosion; Note: located south of Nigeria and west of Gabon near the Equator in the; North Atlantic Ocean 
128flag of TaiwanTaiwansubject to earthquakes and typhoons 
129flag of TajikistanTajikistanNA 
130flag of LesothoLesothopopulation pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing severe soil erosion soil exhaustion; desertification 
131flag of LaosLaosdeforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods 
132flag of LatviaLatviaheightened levels of air and water pollution because of a lack of waste conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga heavily polluted 
133flag of Christmas IslandChristmas Islandalmost completely surrounded by a reef 
134flag of OctoberOctobersubject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to 
135flag of BruneiBruneityphoons earthquakes and severe flooding are rare 
136flag of BulgariaBulgariasubject to earthquakes landslides; deforestation; air pollution 
137flag of Burkina FasoBurkina Fasorecent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural activities population distribution economy; overgrazing; deforestation 
138flag of BurundiBurundisoil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation 
139flag of Cabo VerdeCabo Verdesubject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing 
140flag of Tonle SapTonle Sapa land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and 
141flag of CameroonCameroonrecent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification 
142flag of Cayman IslandsCayman Islandswithin the Caribbean hurricane belt 
143flag of Central African RepublicCentral African Republichot dry dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification 
144flag of ChadChadhot dry dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts 
145flag of Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertificationAtacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertificationsubject to severe earthquakes active volcanism tsunami; 
146flag of ChinaChinafrequent typhoons 
147flag of Clipperton IslandClipperton Islandreef about 8 km in circumference 
148flag of Sao PauloSao Paulorecurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro and 
149flag of Cocos IslandsCocos Islandstwo coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation 
150flag of ColombiaColombiahighlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts 
151flag of ComorosComorossoil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy season 
152flag of Brazzaville Pointe Noire or along the railroad between themBrazzaville Pointe Noire or along the railroad between themdeforestation; about 70% of the population lives in 
153flag of Cook IslandsCook Islandssubject to typhoons from November to March 
154flag of Coral Sea IslandsCoral Sea Islandssubject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles; Note: the islands are located just off the northeast coast of Australia in the Coral Sea 
155flag of Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosionAtlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosionsubject to occasional earthquakes hurricanes along 
156flag of CroatiaCroatiaair pollution from metallurgical plants; damaged forest; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes 
157flag of CubaCubaaverages one hurricane every other year 
158flag of CyprusCyprusmoderate earthquake activity; water resource problems 
159flag of Côte d'IvoireCôte d'Ivoirecoast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe deforestation 
160flag of DenmarkDenmarkair and water pollution 
161flag of DjiboutiDjiboutivast wasteland 
162flag of British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean Territoryarchipelago of 2300 islands 
163flag of Bouvet IslandBouvet Islandcovered by glacial ice 
164flag of Dominican RepublicDominican Republicsubject to occasional hurricanes 
165flag of AustraliaAustraliasubject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular tropical invigorating sea breeze known as the doctor occurs along west coast in summer; desertification 
166flag of AlgeriaAlgeriamountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification 
167flag of American SamoaAmerican Samoatyphoons common from December to March 
168flag of AndorraAndorradeforestation overgrazing 
169flag of AngolaAngolalocally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification 
170flag of AnguillaAnguillafrequent hurricanes other tropical storms 
171flag of AntarcticaAntarcticamostly uninhabitable; katabatic 
172flag of Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbudasubject to hurricanes and tropical storms 
173flag of Arctic OceanArctic Oceanendangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage 
174flag of Buenos AiresBuenos AiresTucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in 
175flag of YerevanYerevanpollution of Razdan and Aras Rivers; air pollution in 
176flag of ArubaArubalies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt 
177flag of Nature Reserve established in August 1983Nature Reserve established in August 1983surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National 
178flag of Mediterranean Sea; icebergs common in Davis Strait Denmark Strait and the northwestern Atlantic from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern AtlanticMediterranean Sea; icebergs common in Davis Strait Denmark Strait and the northwestern Atlantic from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlanticendangered marine species include the manatee seals sea lions turtles and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US southern Brazil and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea Gulf of Mexico Lake Maracaibo Mediterranean Sea and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea North Sea and 
179flag of AustriaAustriabecause of steep slopes poor soils and cold temperatures population is concentrated on eastern lowlands 
180flag of BotswanaBotswanarains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgazing; desertification 
181flag of Baku and Sumgait and the Caspian Sea to be Baku and Sumgait and the Caspian Sea to be "most ecologically devastated area in the world" because of severe air and water pollutionlocal scientists consider Apsheron Peninsula including 
182flag of BahrainBahrainsubsurface water sources being rapidly depleted 
183flag of Baker IslandBaker Islandtreeless sparse and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses prostrate vines and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife 
184flag of BangladeshBangladeshvulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation 
185flag of BarbadosBarbadossubject to hurricanes 
186flag of Bassas da IndiaBassas da Indiasurrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones 
187flag of BelarusBelarussouthern part of Belarus 
188flag of BelgiumBelgiumair and water pollution 
189flag of BelizeBelizefrequent devastating hurricanes 
190flag of BeninBeninhot dry dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation; desertification 
191flag of BermudaBermudaample rainfall but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360 small coral islands 
192flag of BhutanBhutanviolent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon 
193flag of BoliviaBoliviacold thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
194flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovinaair pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes 
195flag of DominicaDominicaflash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes 
196flag of EcuadorEcuadorsubject to frequent earthquakes landslides volcanic activity; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts 
197flag of AlbaniaAlbaniasubject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast 
198flag of IsraelIsraelsandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited arable land: and natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation 
199flag of Holy SeeHoly Seeurban 
200flag of HondurasHondurassubject to frequent but generally mild earthquakes; damaging hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion 
201flag of Hong KongHong Kongmore than 200 islands; occasional typhoons 
202flag of Howland IslandHowland Islandalmost totally covered with grasses prostrate vines and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife; feral cats 
203flag of HungaryHungarylevees are common along many streams but flooding occurs almost every year 
204flag of IcelandIcelandsubject to earthquakes and volcanic activity 
205flag of IndiaIndiadroughts flash floods severe thunderstorms common; deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution; desertification 
206flag of SeaSeaendangered marine species include the dugong seals turtles and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea Persian Gulf and Red 
207flag of IndonesiaIndonesiaarchipelago of 13500 islands 
208flag of IranIrandeforestation; overgrazing; desertification 
209flag of IraqIraqdevelopment of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians 
210flag of IrelandIrelanddeforestation 
211flag of Isle of ManIsle of Manstrong westerly winds prevail 
212flag of ItalyItalyregional risks include land-slides mudflows snowslides earthquakes volcanic eruptions flooding pollution; land sinkage in Venice 
213flag of HaitiHaitilies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion 
214flag of JamaicaJamaicasubject to hurricanes 
215flag of Jan MayenJan Mayenbarren volcanic island with some moss and grass; volcanic activity resumed in 1970 
216flag of JapanJapanmany dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1500 seismic occurrences 
217flag of Jarvis IslandJarvis Islandsparse bunch grass prostrate vines and low-growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting roosting and foraging habitat for seabirds shorebirds and marine wildlife; feral cats 
218flag of JerseyJerseyabout 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier 
219flag of Johnston AtollJohnston Atollsome low-growing vegetation 
220flag of JordanJordanlack of natural water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification 
221flag of Juan de Nova IslandJuan de Nova Islandsubject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary 
222flag of KazakhstanKazakhstandrying up of Aral Sea is causing increased concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; industrial pollution 
223flag of KenyaKenyaunique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; glaciers on Mt. Kenya 
224flag of Kingman ReefKingman Reefbarren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or awash most of the time 
225flag of KiribatiKiribatityphoons can occur any time but usually November to March; 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited 
226flag of KuwaitKuwaitsome of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide most of water; air and water pollution; desertification 
227flag of KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstanNA 
228flag of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald Islandsprimarily used as research stations 
229flag of GuyanaGuyanaflash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons; water pollution 
230flag of EgyptEgyptNile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; hot driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; water pollution; desertification 
231flag of French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench Southern and Antarctic LandsIle Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes 
232flag of El SalvadorEl SalvadorThe Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
233flag of Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guineasubject to violent windstorms 
234flag of EstoniaEstoniacoastal waters largely polluted 
235flag of EthiopiaEthiopiageologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine 
236flag of Europa IslandEuropa Islandwildlife sanctuary 
237flag of Falkland IslandsFalkland Islandspoor soil fertility and a short growing season 
238flag of Faroe IslandsFaroe Islandsprecipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands; archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets 
239flag of Federated States of MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesiasubject to typhoons from June to December; four major island groups totaling 607 islands 
240flag of FijiFijisubject to hurricanes from November to January; includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited 
241flag of FinlandFinlandpermanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain 
242flag of Garonne Seine or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistralGaronne Seine or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistralmost of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone 
243flag of French GuianaFrench Guianamostly an unsettled wilderness 
244flag of French PolynesiaFrench Polynesiaoccasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes 
245flag of GabonGabondeforestation 
246flag of GuineaGuineahot dry dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; deforestation 
247flag of Gaza StripGaza Stripdesertification 
248flag of Kura River Black SeaKura River Black Seaair pollution particularly in Rustavi; heavy pollution of 
249flag of GermanyGermanyair and water pollution; groundwater lakes and air quality in eastern Germany are especially bad; significant deforestation in the eastern mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain 
250flag of GhanaGhanarecent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry northeasterly harmattan wind 
251flag of GibraltarGibraltarnatural freshwater sources are meager so large water catchments 
252flag of Glorioso IslandsGlorioso Islandssubject to periodic cyclones 
253flag of GreeceGreecesubject to severe earthquakes; air pollution; archipelago of 2000 islands 
254flag of GreenlandGreenlandsparse population confined to small settlements along coast; continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island; Note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe 
255flag of June to NovemberJune to Novemberlies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from 
256flag of GuadeloupeGuadeloupesubject to hurricanes 
257flag of GuamGuamfrequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively rare but potentially very destructive typhoons 
258flag of GuatemalaGuatemalanumerous volcanoes in mountains with frequent violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution 
259flag of GuernseyGuernseylarge deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port 
260flag of Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissauhot dry dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season 
261flag of ZimbabweZimbabwerecurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution 

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